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Azure Machine Learning Auto Encoder Anomaly Detection Sample

Anomaly Detection using Auto Encoder


Note: This sample is from Tensorflow to show how it works in Azure Machine Learning.
I have not installed any libraries in the Azure Machine Learning environment.
I am using python 3.8 Tensorflow and Pytorch as kernel


# Download the dataset
dataframe = pd.read_csv('', header=None)
raw_data = dataframe.values
# The last element contains the labels
labels = raw_data[:, -1]
# The other data points are the electrocadriogram data
data = raw_data[:, 0:-1]
train_data, test_data, train_labels, test_labels = train_test_split(
data, labels, test_size=0.2, random_state=21
min_val = tf.reduce_min(train_data)
max_val = tf.reduce_max(train_data)
train_data = (train_data - min_val) / (max_val - min_val)
test_data = (test_data - min_val) / (max_val - min_val)
train_data = tf.cast(train_data, tf.float32)
test_data = tf.cast(test_data, tf.float32)
train_labels = train_labels.astype(bool)
test_labels = test_labels.astype(bool)
normal_train_data = train_data[train_labels]
normal_test_data = test_data[test_labels]
anomalous_train_data = train_data[~train_labels]
anomalous_test_data = test_data[~test_labels]
plt.plot(np.arange(140), normal_train_data[0])
plt.title("A Normal ECG")
plt.plot(np.arange(140), anomalous_train_data[0])
plt.title("An Anomalous ECG")
class AnomalyDetector(Model):
def __init__(self):
super(AnomalyDetector, self).__init__()
self.encoder = tf.keras.Sequential([
layers.Dense(32, activation="relu"),
layers.Dense(16, activation="relu"),
layers.Dense(8, activation="relu")])
self.decoder = tf.keras.Sequential([
layers.Dense(16, activation="relu"),
layers.Dense(32, activation="relu"),
layers.Dense(140, activation="sigmoid")])
def call(self, x):
encoded = self.encoder(x)
decoded = self.decoder(encoded)
return decoded
autoencoder = AnomalyDetector()
autoencoder.compile(optimizer='adam', loss='mae')
history =, normal_train_data, 
validation_data=(test_data, test_data),
plt.plot(history.history["loss"], label="Training Loss")
plt.plot(history.history["val_loss"], label="Validation Loss")
encoded_data = autoencoder.encoder(normal_test_data).numpy()
decoded_data = autoencoder.decoder(encoded_data).numpy()
plt.plot(normal_test_data[0], 'b')
plt.plot(decoded_data[0], 'r')
plt.fill_between(np.arange(140), decoded_data[0], normal_test_data[0], color='lightcoral')
plt.legend(labels=["Input", "Reconstruction", "Error"])
encoded_data = autoencoder.encoder(anomalous_test_data).numpy()
decoded_data = autoencoder.decoder(encoded_data).numpy()
plt.plot(anomalous_test_data[0], 'b')
plt.plot(decoded_data[0], 'r')
plt.fill_between(np.arange(140), decoded_data[0], anomalous_test_data[0], color='lightcoral')
plt.legend(labels=["Input", "Reconstruction", "Error"])
plt.hist(train_loss[None,:], bins=50)
plt.xlabel("Train loss")
plt.ylabel("No of examples")
threshold = np.mean(train_loss) + np.std(train_loss)
print("Threshold: ", threshold)
reconstructions = autoencoder.predict(anomalous_test_data)
test_loss = tf.keras.losses.mae(reconstructions, anomalous_test_data)
plt.hist(test_loss[None, :], bins=50)
plt.xlabel("Test loss")
plt.ylabel("No of examples")
def predict(model, data, threshold):
reconstructions = model(data)
loss = tf.keras.losses.mae(reconstructions, data)
return tf.math.less(loss, threshold)
def print_stats(predictions, labels):
print("Accuracy = {}".format(accuracy_score(labels, predictions)))
print("Precision = {}".format(precision_score(labels, predictions)))
print("Recall = {}".format(recall_score(labels, predictions)))
preds = predict(autoencoder, test_data, threshold)
print_stats(preds, test_labels)



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