NEO’s dBFT 2.0 — Single Block Finality with Improved Availability

Jeff S
Jeff S
Jun 5 · 5 min read


NEO is innovative due to its features that target its vision of a digital smart economy. These features are primarily fast single block finality and support for easily programmable contracts. To achieve single block finality NEO employs a protocol it describes as dBFT (Delegated Byzantine Fault Tolerance), an adaption of pBFT (Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance). Arguably the most challenging aspects of successfully implementing a BFT consensus protocol relate to dealing with the edge case failures that can occur due to network latency and node restarts.


In order to be able to understand the benefits of dBFT 2.0 it is necessary to understand some details regarding the operation of the consensus protocol. BFT algorithms such as Neo’s dBFT require approximately 2/3 of the validator nodes’ signatures in order to come to consensus. For dBFT, where F is the number of allowed failed nodes, the following equations give the number of required validator nodes and number of required signatures.

  • Validator Nodes = 3F+1
  • Signatures Required = 2F+1
  1. PrepareResponse: the validator nodes that receive the PrepareRequest ensure all the transactions in it are valid and respond with their signature in a PrepareResponse message.
  2. Once 2F+1 PrepareResponses have been received the new block is created with the signatures.


NEO’s dBFT 1.0 algorithm was susceptible to a single block fork in rare cases of network latency. This problem has been known for quite some time and has been documented (such as in this article). The forked block could occur because nodes were allowed to timeout after having sent a PrepareResponse message. Since the CN node clocks would never be (and never will be) 100% synchronized, nodes would timeout and move to the next validator at slightly different times. If all but one validator didn’t timeout, and that validator had already received 2F PrepareResponse messages, it would generate a valid signed block, while the others would have switched to the next primary, where they could come to consensus and sign yet another block at the same height. At this point, the consensus nodes would only build on one of the forks; so the problem was sometimes termed a block spork. While this scenario could occur without stalling consensus, many of the Neo full network nodes could potentially accept the forked block and become stalled, leading to operational issues with the network nodes that ultimately are relied upon by the end users.


dBFT 2.0 fixes this problem by adding a commitment phase similar to that described in the pBFT (Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance) document. In order to prevent network stalls, dBFT 2.0 also adds a recovery message implementation into the consensus protocol. The recovery mechanism has the added benefit of improving block times in the case of various operational issues with the consensus nodes. Performance is improved for situations such as:

  • Consensus node process restart or system restart due to hardware failure, power outage, or other system issue.

Testing and Quality Assurance

In order to ensure quality for the dBFT 2.0 implementation, code changes went through multiple phases of testing. NEO Core Developers performed extensive testing in private networks simulating network failures using NEO’s P2P plugin. Similar automated and manual testing was also performed in private networks managed by NGD. Finally, the code was tested on the NEO public TestNet.


With Neo 2.10.2 now running on the MainNet consensus nodes since June 3rd, the improvements of dBFT 2.0 can be seen in practice today in the form of reduced block times as can be seen in the graphs from Figure 1 and Figure 2 below. Additionally, with this upgrade Neo consensus nodes are now also running the code that improves the memory pool performance, which further reduces the operational burden on the network and ensures block times can stay minimized during higher transaction volume on the network.

Figure 1. Average block times encountered on the NEO network on a per minute basis
Figure 2. Worst block time encountered on the NEO network on a per minute basis

Adoption and Use at the point-of-sale

NEO dBFT 2.0 was developed as one of the improvements of the NEO 3.0 initiative, that has been made available ahead of time on NEO 2.x. Now that dBFT 2.0 is in production on MainNet the vast majority of operational issues that businesses once faced when adopting NEO in production are no longer an issue. With this blocker to adoption gone, the NEO network’s use for point-of-sale transactions is poised to flourish.

NEO Smart Economy

NEO is a non-profit community-driven open-source blockchain project. "Digital assets ➕ Digital identity ➕ Smart contract = Smart economy". Website ➡

Jeff S

Written by

Jeff S

Neo Core Developer

NEO Smart Economy

NEO is a non-profit community-driven open-source blockchain project. "Digital assets ➕ Digital identity ➕ Smart contract = Smart economy". Website ➡