Reactive Programming at Netflix

Hi, my name is Jafar Husain. I’m a Senior Developer on the TV User Interface team.

Over the last year, Netflix has reinvented our client-server interaction model. One of the key building blocks of our platform is Microsoft’s open-source Reactive Extensions library (Rx). Netflix is a big believer in the Rx model, because Rx has made it much easier for us to build complex asynchronous programs.

Asynchronous Programming is Hard

Events and AJAX requests are sequences of values that are pushed from the producer to the consumer asynchronously. The consumer reacts to the data as it comes in, which is why asynchronous programming is also called Reactive Programming. Every web application is a reactive program, because code reacts to events like mouse clicks, key presses, and the asynchronous arrival of data from the server. Asynchronous programming is hard, because logical units of code have to be split across many different callbacks so that they can be resumed after async operations complete. To make matters worse, most programming languages have no facilities for propagating asynchronous errors. Asynchronous errors aren’t thrown on the stack, which means that try/catch blocks are useless.

Events are Collections

The Reactive Extensions library models each event as a collection of data rather than a series of callbacks. This is a revolutionary idea, because once you model an event as a collection you can transform events in much the same way you might transform in-memory collections. Rx provides developers with a SQL-like query language that can be used to sequence, filter, and transform events. Rx also makes it possible to propagate and handle asynchronous errors in a manner similar to synchronous error handling.

Rx is currently available for JavaScript and Microsoft’s .NET platform, and we’re using both flavors to power our PS3 and Windows 8 clients respectively. As Ben Christensen mentioned in his post “Optimizing the Netflix API”, we’ve also ported Rx to the Java platform so that we can use it on the server. Today, Reactive Extensions is required learning for many developers at Netflix. We’ve developed an online, interactive tutorial for teaching our developers Rx, and we’re opening it up to the public today.

Reactive Extensions at Netflix

On a very hot day in Brisbane, I gave an interview to Channel 9 during which I discussed Rx use at Netflix in-depth. I also discussed Falkor, a new protocol we’ve designed for client-server communication at Netflix. Falkor provides developers with a unified model for interacting with both local and remote data, and it’s built on top of Rx:

In the coming weeks we’ll be blogging more about Reactive Programming, our next generation data platform, and the Falkor protocol. Today Netflix is one of very few technology companies using reactive programming on both the server and the client. If you think this is as exciting as we do, join the team!

See Also:

Originally published at on January 16, 2013.