NSD is performant by design because it matters when operators serve hundreds of thousands or even millions of queries per second. We strive to make the right choices by default, like enabling the use of libevent at the configure stage to ensure the most efficient event mechanism is used on a given platform. e.g.
epoll on Linux and
kqueue on FreeBSD. Switches are available for operators who know the implementation on their system behaves correctly, like enabling the use of
recvmmsg at the configure stage (
--enable-recvmmsg) to read multiple messages from a socket in one system call.
By default NSD forks (only) one server. Modern computer systems however, may have more than one processor, and usually have more than one core per processor. The easiest way to scale up performance is to simply fork more servers by configuring
server-count: to match the number of cores available in the system so that more queries can be answered simultaneously. If the operating system supports it, ensure
reuseport: is set to
yes to distribute incoming packets evenly across server processes to balance the load.
A couple of other options that the operator may want to consider:
- Memory usage can be lowered (around 50%) by using zone files and disable the on-disk database by setting
- TCP capacity can be significantly increased by setting
tcp-timeout: 3. Set
tcp-reject-overflow: yesto prevent the kernel connection queue from growing.
The aforementioned settings provide an easy way to increase performance without the need for in-depth knowledge of the hardware. For operators that require even more throughput, we introduced:
The operating system’s scheduling-algorithm determines which core a given task is allocated to. Processors build up state — e.g. by keeping frequently accessed data in cache memory — for the task that it is currently executing. Whenever a task switches cores, performance is degraded because the core it switched to has yet to build up said state. While this scheduling-algorithm works just fine for general-purpose computing, operators may want to designate a set of cores for best performance. The
cpu-affinity family of configuration options was added to NSD specifically for that purpose.
Processor affinity is currently supported on Linux and FreeBSD. Other operating systems may be supported in the future, but not all operating systems that can run NSD support CPU pinning.
To fully benefit from this feature, one must first determine which cores should be allocated to NSD. This requires some knowledge of the underlying hardware, but generally speaking every process should run on a dedicated core and the use of Hyper-Threading cores should be avoided to prevent resource contention. List every core designated to NSD in
cpu-affinity and bind each server process to a specific core using
xfrd-cpu-affinity to improve L1/L2 cache hit rates and reduce pipeline stalls/flushes.
cpu-affinity: 0 1 2
ip-address: options in the
server: clause can now be configured per server or set of servers. Sockets configured for a specific server are closed by other servers on startup. This improves performance if a large number of sockets are scanned using
select/poll and avoids waking up multiple servers when a packet comes in, known as the thundering herd problem. Though both problems are solved using a modern kernel and a modern I/O event mechanism, there is one other reason to partition sockets that’ll become apparent below.
ip-address: 192.0.2.1 servers=1
Bind to device
ip-address: options in the
server: clause can now also be configured to bind directly to the network interface device on Linux (
bindtodevice=yes) and to use a specific routing table on FreeBSD (
setfib=<N>). These were added to ensure UDP responses go out over the same interface the query came in on if there are multiple interfaces configured on the same subnet, but there may be some performance benefits as well as the kernel does not have to go through the network interface selection process.
ip-address: 192.0.2.1 bindtodevice=yes setfib=<N>
FreeBSD does not create extra routing tables on demand. Consult the FreeBSD Handbook, forums, etc. for information on how to configure multiple routing tables.
Power of three
Field tests have shown best performance is achieved by combining the aforementioned options so that each network interface is essentially bound to a specific core. To do so, use one IP address per server process, pin that process to a designated core and bind directly to the network interface device.
cpu-affinity: 0 1 2
ip-address: 192.0.2.1 servers=1 bindtodevice=yes setfib=1
ip-address: 192.0.2.2 servers=2 bindtodevice=yes setfib=2
The above snippet serves as an example on how to use the configuration options. Which cores, IP addresses and routing tables are best used depends entirely on the hardware and network layout. Be sure to test extensively before using the options.
Field tests were carried out by a large operator with a specific setup, not by NLnet Labs. The new configuration options allow users to mix-and-match processor affinity, processes and sockets in various ways. We’re working hard to come up with numbers ourselves, but would also love feedback. Let us know what configuration works best for your setup and, if applicable, what can be improved.