3. ENDEAVORS in ARTIFICIAL: Intelligence, Stupidity, Sentient, or Consciousness
SECTION — III: Quantum Computing, Patterns and Chaos
In the first post of this series, I’ve addressed the question of what it could be the motivation and instrumental rationality in artificial intelligence associated with wisdom and intellectual development in human.
In the second post, I’ve tried to get your attention to the mechanisms of intelligent human behavior as biologically inspired as taking reference from human emotions to leap at an opportunity on the human-computer symbiosis as to be identified intersection domains.
In the last part of this post series, I’ll try to share my opinions regarding the possibilities to make connection on human thinking pattern level with AI for the realization of artificial intelligence by touching the possible synergies between quantum Computing and Artificial Intelligence.
Trying To Make Some Sense of AI
To figure out the artificial intelligence is required to move away from the idea of manipulate data in a classical way on a computer since the information is often considered as an entity that is stored on the computer. In reality, the information is the reflection on the mind of organic substance that is motion point of materialism or in other words selective reflection of truth.
The acquisition of information with observations and experiments may not define the truth with a full precision in every moment. The illusion bounds in one aspect of perfection or analysis capability of mind, it is also depends on a further aspect of perception and observation.
However, this does not mean that the information is inaccurate or unreliable. The logic revealed by mind agrees that information is as correctly in unconditionally way as until proven otherwise. Unless the self-decomposition, this approach creates a temporary hinge for the thesis is to be basis.
The absolute truth is the interactions with itself and its derivatives of organic substance such as DNA, proteins, amino acids, and the hormones consisting of hundreds which are the basic building blocks of life provides the diversity of organic life and the emergence of millions of species.
Therefore, the organic structures that can exhibit behaviors usually generating autonomous or automatic responses according to different stimuli might not have a mind. However, the truth is certainly absolute, even if the mind might not be existed. Although the truth is variable and dynamic, it can be perceivable and comprehensible by patterns to be defined with symbolic logic.
People’s cognitive functions which is defined as consciousness and self-control or will allow them to choose their roles within their social schemes and thus in relatively appoint their own dynamics. The consciousness which is important component of human mind is to be generated by the orientation of training and genetic abilities to gain social and economic status besides the pattern formed by the social reflex is transferred from generation to generation since the first began socializing.
Walking on two legs distinguished the first hominids from other apes had developed collective consciousness. This humanoid species did cooperate to find food or hunt. This collaboration was required the communication. Thus, the human mind which represents the most advanced variant of the mind contains major differences in terms of anthropological and evolutionary development when compared with other animal species who can’t speak the language.
So, after all these explanations, it reveals two important things that could be reference of artificial intelligence and quantum computing endeavors which are the collaboration in collective consciousness manner and the communication evolving with language ability.
The human mind advanced enough replicating the abstract concepts by the way of reasoning with language ability have started to wonder why and how come into being. I think the instinct of curiosity which is unquenchable -or may be pre-programming as I foresighted before- is firing the motivation and instrumental rationality in artificial intelligence associated with wisdom and intellectual development in human.
The Quantity of Human Mind
When it became clear that the data transmission in brain is electro-chemical, biochemistry showed interests the methodology of data transmission and store. Today, modern diagnostic systems, in particularly through tomographic methods that can take the brain sensitive sections, are able to reach the important findings about the biological structure of the brain.
Hence, the most important finding is that the data, contrary to general belief, is not processed by a logic that is based on variable or contradictions as supposed. However, due to the effect of uncertainty trends of quantum theory in physics, it was thought that the handled data has been much more complicated than the phenomenon that would be explained in formal logic.
The reflection on the works of artificial intelligence of this illusion was the fuzzy logic research. Fuzzy logic opposed to processing of information as 0 and 1 (Boolean algebra) so binary system in classical computer science. They argue that information is not only composed of right or wrong but it should be expressed in millions of variables based on the possibility of contradictions.
However, biochemistry correlated the information stored in the brain through the neurons synthesize or exclude to proteins which means of exactly 0 and 1 in binary system. Well, if the information in the human brain is stored with a sharp contrast of accept or reject as in the basis of true and false, how was the processes that is fuzzed the information realized up to so complex cognitive processes and qualitative reasoning?
The answer of question is rooted in symbolic logic which means the pattern, higher cognitive processes, and the analysis of perception. Surely, even simple information in human brain cannot be expressed with just true and false indicator. Something that is overlooked in this illusion is that the information is made up of the patterns. 0’s and 1’s identify whether there is only one unit of this pattern. If we think that the pattern consists of a number of units, we need on plurality of 0’s and 1’s to define the information. It is also needed to know the characteristics of this pattern are required.
The observation that is a tool of perception looks at the reality or organic substance in a particular section because of the tolerance values of the means of perception. The human eye can detect light in a certain frequency values. However, it is impossible to detect the photon rays containing all other frequency values with the human eye, for example; infrared, ultraviolet rays or radio waves. This selective feature of human perception, namely failure to detect the upper and lower values, prevents us to perceive all of the patterns.
Human perception is just like the light of a flashlight. It is restricted to a triangular cross section opening outwardly. When we need to information, we point to our perception flashlight toward to organic substance and then count to quantities we are able to illuminate in the light of flashlight. All the unitary values that can be counted are components of the pattern of information.
Patterns in different dimensions may have their own unique rules. This why Newton physics can explain in a very consistent way of gravitational forces and macro cosmos, whereas it fails to provide coherent explanation for the weak of gravitational forces and micro cosmos. Similarly, quantum mechanics also cannot be adjusted to the macro cosmos.
Even if the tolerance thresholds of the human eye would be higher or lower pain, we would have difficulty in detecting the entire pattern. It stems from the patterns are not flat and analytical. It is like cosmos (macro/micro) are the sphere-shaped and cover each other, in other words they are intertwined.
Just like that organic substance consists of the sphere-shaped parts covering each other. Human perception is only adjusted in a precise manner to detect its substance layer. All sizes that can be detected in its layer are the units of the surrounding pattern that formal logic uses math to count these units.
Eventually, the formal logic is something that can be detected. If the smallest unit is a grain of sand that we can see with the naked eye, the desert is a pattern consisting of grains of sand. In mathematics, the plane is defined consisting of points. Therefore, the smallest point we are able to detect is a unit of plane patterns formed from them.
To understand the relationship between perception and pattern, consider the man’s natural environment, essentially the truth composed of three-dimensional pattern is being perceived by the eye reducing to a two-dimensional pattern plane. This plane is the retina.
There are about 8 million light-cone and 12 million optical sensor (photo-receptors) cells called rod on the retina, which is a plane concave. The reference of objects, which means three-dimensional pattern, is transmitted by the light rays. These references are converted into electro-chemical signals on the photo receptors with different qualifications such as the color, lightness, and darkness.
This two-dimensional form of the reverse-image is transmitted to brain by the neuro transmitters and is transformed into a new pattern that contains 0 and 1 through the synthesis of proteins in the brain. Incoming stereoscopic pattern is converted into a three-dimensional perception having creating the perception of depth by visual centers of the brain.
Our metabolism reduces three-dimensional pattern to a two-dimensional pattern so that is used the symbolical logic. It’s never tried to figure out the entire three-dimensional pattern all around. Instead of installing such chaos to the brain, our system creates a new symbolical pattern formed much less units for which the reality consist of millions of times a billion atoms. The all information consisting of symbols, as it is sufficient to survive in the ecological environment, provides fast processing on the fewer units to make a quick decision.
Human beings who are trying to understand the truth, which was perceived in the first age, used math as counting or reasoning it in the based arguments of reality. But then the patterns which can be perceived with the naked eye were getting not enough for us. We’re interested in relationships behind the objective reality since it would also be used this information to obtain economic benefits.
Thus, we’ve started to investigate macro cosmos by inventing telescope. In a correlative relation, we’ve also noticed new patterns predicate the micro cosmos through using microscope. We’ve been developing mathematical theories and technologies to figure out the continuously discovered such dimensions by the agency of pragmatic approach we have with evolution.
Ultimately, there must be infinite numbers of intertwined patterns in universe waiting to be figured out. Man’s adventure with reality would be a process expanding spirally as we figure out such intertwined patterns as might be in the sphere-shaped.
Establishing Human Thinking Pattern with Quantum Computing
To describe the human thinking pattern, we need to describe the communication between the neurons so that you need to simulate the activity of the neocortex. The communication capability between two biological neurons has been the most important factor in the symbolic logic.
The biological brain is designed as highly parallel connections. The majority of neurons are connected directly to thousands of other neurons. In any case, the human brain behaves as a unit of massively parallel computing in which many instructions are executed simultaneously. But you would need a different computing system for conducting this issue because of its electrical patterns that are holding all the information about whatever stimulated in human brain.
The main criticism about artificial intelligence programs relates to their ability to mimic human thinking. The potential values and future aspects of AI can be perceived in a more precise manner by comparing with some areas of natural intelligence. At this point, it needs to be put forward what is the intelligent behavior. Most of the types of behavior can be regarded as signs of intelligence. Typical examples are the following:
- Learning from the experiences,
- Make sense of the conflicting and mixed messages,
- Prompt response in a new situation with quickly and successfully,
- Using the reasoning ability to solve problems,
- Producing knowledge from information,
- Overcoming unusual and surprising situations,
- Thinking and judgment capability, etc.
Each of the studies on artificial intelligence reveals even more new questions than answers. In this regard, Marvin Minsky, the pioneer on artificial intelligence at MIT research group, implies that AI studies like a moving horizon.
Therefore, although studies on artificial intelligence is on the agenda since the late 1960s, most of the researchers have been in vain to reveal anything new in this field because of needing more computing power of AI applications. Therefore, AI attempts imitate human behavior belongs to biology-inspired symbolical approach is highly related to quantum computation.
So the next step is just to take these brain coordinates and to project them into perceptual space by using quantum computing and when we do that, we would be able to step inside the reality that is created by the machine.