# 8D Problem Solving: What I learnt.

I was surfing the net and came across Bosch’s Supply Chain Academy. Grateful I did. This is what I got from it.

### Problem Solving (8D)

Requirement: Supplier have to remedy failures systematically and sustainable.

Problem Solving (PS) means an integrated approach to the sustainable solution of problems. The term ‘problem’ itself is understood as ‘deviation from a defined target state with an unknown cause’.

Recommended for all failures and on demand by Bosch.

### Why do it? / Purpose

Understanding the functional dependencies and relationships of cause and effect in order to avoid reoccurrence of same or similar problems.

### When to do it

Whenever a problem has to be solved (acc. above description)

### Key Performance Indicator (KPI)

• Reaction time,
• Quality of problem solving,
• Avoidance of mistake repeat

INPUT

Occurrence of a problem, meaning a deviation of defined target state with unknown cause by Bosch or supplier

ACTIVITY

• Collection and analysis of facts and figures
• Problem description
• Analysis of cause-effect-relationship
• Root-cause analysis (technical & managerial)
• Definition of measures to solve problem
• Implementation of counter measures
• Close communication regarding activities with Bosch contact

OUTPUT

• Problem clearly described and fundamental problem understood
• Root cause and cause-effect-relationship clearly understood
• Proof of effectiveness of counter measures
• Lessons Learned

The 8Ds:

• D1: Set up a Problem-Solving team.
• D2: Describe the problem.
• D3: Initiate Containment Actions.
• D4: Determine the root Cause.
• D5: Define corrective actions and prove effectiveness.
• D6: Implement Corrective actions and Track Effectiveness.
• D7: Prevent Recurrence of the problem.
• D8: Conduct final meeting.

D1:

Sponsor/Champion: The customer who logs in the complain.

8D Team Members.

External Team Members.

D2:

Get the Data,facts, figures. Who reported the problem? What is the problem? When did the Problem occur? How? How often?

D3:

Containment actions. What are the measures you can put in place?

D4:

Root Cause Analysis…

• Technical Root Cause.
• Non-detection root cause.
• Non-prediction root cause.

(Non-conformity,Technical,system-related).

Occurrence and Deviation.

Risk assessment to drive updates and improvements to estimate potentially defective parts…

Patterns of Occurrence(Erratic, Permanent,Periodical,Seasonal, Etc…)

Techniques for RCA

1. Ishikawa(Fish-Bone)
2. 5 why Technique
3. Fault Tree Analysis
4. Kepner Tregoe
5. Shainin
6. Six Sigma
7. BPS Problem-solving sheet.

Ishikawa Diagram. Cause & Effect Analysis.

→Used to identify & document all potential Causes of problem.

5-Why Analysis

The 5 is just an estimate.Could be more/Less.The technique in real life requires that you continue to ask why until why is Identified.

D5:

Define & verify corrective actions to address the root cause of the problem.

Activities Involved: Compiling a limit of all actions that can elimiante the root Cause of the Problem.

• Verifying the effectiveness &consequence of the identified actions.
• Determining & Confirming the “optimal” corrective action(s).
• Creating an action plan including the milestones & responsibilities for implementing the corrective actions.
• Documenting & communicating the corrective actions to the customer.

Failure Mode & Effects Analysis(FMEA), Design Review Based on Failure Mode(DRBFM)

Result|Defined & approved Correction action.

Set milestones →Responsibilities…

D6:

Implementation of Corrective action.

→Remove containment actionin D3 as soon as possible!

→Is there supporting data to verify if the Corrective action worked?

D7: Prevent Recurrence:

→Identify weaknesses

→Appropriate reasons in Quality Management systems(QMS)

→Transferring experiments to other proceses, Products, locations(Lessons Learned, Yokoten-Japanese that translates to “best practice sharing”)

D8: Final meeting to recognize success of the complemented 8D problem-Solving.

→ Archived completed 8D report.

Performing 8D

When? — Pre Deviation. Through out Life cycles.

Collect all Relevant Data: Picture, Graphs, Charts, Flow Charts, Diagrams…

Document 8D Steps:

Use available (IT) Infrastructure — Google sheets, Docs, Etc.

Timeline a typical 8D in Bosch:

8D Evaluation Sheet: I will leave that one out. If you’re interested, you can check out the full online course.

Note:

1. It took me 3–4 hours to complete, take the test and receive a certificate.
2. The course was designed by Robert Bosch GmbH for their suppliers, but I think it would be quite useful to anyone interested in Supply Chain.
3. I am not linked to Bosch in any way — yet.
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