How to assess security vulnerability of the organization

David Artykov
Mar 28 · 7 min read

Provide the organization an evaluation with the vital information, awareness, and risk background to comprehend the dangers to its condition and respond appropriately.

Photo by Burst from Pexels

A vulnerability assessment is a way toward characterizing, distinguishing, ordering, and organizing vulnerabilities in computer frameworks, applications, and network infrastructures. To provide the organization an evaluation with the vital information, awareness, and risk background to comprehend the dangers to its condition and respond appropriately. Vulnerability assessment isn’t explicit to one industry; it connects all businesses extending from IT frameworks to Energy and other utility systems.

Vulnerability evaluations permit security groups to apply a steady, far-reaching, and precise way to deal with recognizing and settling security threats and risks. It has a few advantages to an organization:

· Early and predictable distinguishing proof of dangers and shortcomings in IT security.

· Remediation activities to close any holes and ensure sensitive systems and data.

· Meet cybersecurity compliance and administrative requirements for areas like HIPAA and PCI DSS.

· Ensure against information breaches and other unauthorized access.

There are different approaches to perform vulnerability evaluations; however, one of the most well-known is through automated vulnerability scanning software. These devices use databases of known vulnerabilities to recognize potential defects in your systems, applications, information, equipment, and many more. The vulnerability assessment tools will extensively scan each part of your network. After the scanning, they will report on all the issues found, and recommend activities to expel dangers. The more full-highlighted scanning devices may offer insight into the security and operational effect of remediating a risk, as opposed to tolerating the uncertainty. Vulnerability scanning information may likewise be incorporated into a SIEM alongside other details for even more holistic threat analytics.

In this instructional tutorial, we will be focusing on different types of vulnerability scanning tools and discussing their functionality.

Qualys

Qualys Community Edition gives organizations the usability, adaptability, accuracy, and centralized management of the Qualys Cloud Platform, free of charge. This cloud-based offering enables associations to shield themselves from threats present in the wild without conveying any equipment or causing support costs.

Key Features:

· Map your entire IT infrastructure and discover all your assets, wherever they are — in the cloud or on-premises.

· Detect and survey vulnerabilities on inward and outer IT resources and framework.

· Scan an external or internal web application for vulnerabilities, including the OWASP Top 10.

· Customize dynamic dashboards to mirror your organization’s necessary security data.

Qualys Community Edition Includes:

· 16 Cloud Agents.

· Vulnerability Management up to 16 Internal and 3 External IPs.

· Web Application Scanning for 1 URL.

· 1 Virtual Scanner Appliance.

· CloudView — for reviewing open cloud remaining burdens and foundation.

The Community Edition is a limited form of Express Lite, but scan functionality, full CVE coverage, and Six Sigma accuracy remain the same.

To use the cloud platform of Qualys, we need to register first. Once all the information is provided, Qualys will send you a confirmation email with the link to a login page of the web platform.

To perform a scan, first, we need to provide the IPs/ranges of the objective. From Qualys VM, go to the “Assets” tab and click the “Host Assets.” From the “New” menu, select the tracking method for your hosts.

By default, the “IP Tracked Hosts” option is selected. You can also track hosts by DNS or NetBIOS hostname, which enables reporting scan outputs in a dynamic networking system. For instance, if the hosts on your network are assigned IP addresses dynamically through DHCP, then you can use DNS or NetBIOS hostname tracking options.

In the “New Hosts” window, go to the “Host IPs” tab, and add new IP addresses for the webservers you want to scan. That’s it! The IPs will appear on your “Host Assets” list, and they will be ready for scanning.

Next, return to the dashboard and select the “Start your scan” option to launch a vulnerability scan window. In the “Vulnerability Scan” window, provide some information related to the tile, option profile, and the IPs/Ranges then click on the “Launch” button to start the scanning process.

Once the scanning process is complete, Qualys will send you the scan results via email.

Click on the link provided to view all vulnerabilities based on their severity level.

The report also provides countermeasure techniques that you can apply to patch those problems.

SQLiv

SQLiv is a scanning tool written in Python which uses Google, Bing, or Yahoo for targeted scanning, concentrated on uncover pages with SQL Injection vulnerabilities. It uses known dorks to find vulnerable URLs.

To download SQLiv, visit the https://github.com/the-robot/sqlivpage.

Copy the downloadable link and clone it to the “/opt” directory.

Ex: (root@kali:/opt# git clone https://github.com/the-robot/sqliv.git).

Then navigate to the “sqliv” folder and install the requirements.

Ex: (root@kali:/opt/sqliv# pip install -r requirements.txt).

Once everything is complete, you can execute the tool with the python command and view the help page by adding the “ -- help” operator at the end.

Ex: (root@kali:/opt/sqliv# python sqliv.py -- help).

Let’s try to find any vulnerabilities using SQL injection dork (-d) and search for sites that contain “php?id=” in their URLs. For this, we are going to use the Google search engine (-e), and display a maximum of 20 vulnerable websites.

Ex: (root@kali:/opt/sqliv# python sqliv.py -d “php?id=” -e google -p 20).

Nikto

The Nikto is a web security tool that will test a site for a large number of conceivable security issues. Including; dangerous records, misconfigured services, vulnerable contents, and different aspects. It is open-source and organized with modules that expand the abilities. These modules are frequently updated with new security checks.

Nikto is by no means a stealthy tool. It will make more than 2000 HTTP GET solicitations to the web server, making many entries in the webserver's log documents. It is an excellent way to test an Intrusion Detection System (IDS) that is in place. Any web server log monitoring, host-based intrusion detection (HIDS), or network-based intrusion detection (NIDS) should detect a Nikto scan. Nevertheless, there is support for LibWhisker’s anti-IDS methods if you want to give it a try or test your IDS system.

To start this tool, type “nikto” in the terminal and hit “Enter.” For more help and information on usage, add the “-h” operator at the end.

Ex: (root@kali:~# nikto –h).

Let’s scan our web server host (-h) and output the results (-o) to the “/root/Desktop/” directory as “nikto_report” with the file type of HTML (-F).

Ex: (root@kali:~# nikto -h 10.10.10.10 -o /root/Desktop/nikto_report -F html).

From the scan results, we can observe the recognized issues alongside their OSVDB grouping. Nikto uncovers server subtleties like the webserver, txt document with the number of present entries, directory indexing that permits anybody perusing the site to get to backend records, and the Apache webserver establishment files.

You can also view the scanned output file “nikto_report.html” in the browser by double-clicking on it. It will open up a browser and show all the results in a very friendly, easy-to-read format.

The Nikto Web Vulnerability Scanner is a standard tool found in the backpack of penetration testers and security analysts. It will frequently find fascinating data about a web server or website that can be used later on for more profound exploitation or vulnerability evaluation.

Vulnerability scanning is just a part of the vulnerability evaluation — different procedures like penetration testing can recognize various kinds of threats to your association. Penetration testing supplements vulnerability scanning and helps decide whether it would cause harm, information misfortune, or different issues.

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