Sharding Plus Cross-chain: How Will QuarkChain, A Public Chain Closely Related to Facebook, Win Out?

A series of events took place in the first half of 2019 have reignited people’s enthusiasm for cryptocurrencies: firstly, cryptocurrency investor Justin Sun won the auction to have lunch with Warren Buffett. Secondly, Facebook released Libra whitepaper.

At the beginning of 2018, a senior software engineer of Facebook foresaw the bright prospect of blockchain, not only did he write emails to Zuckerberg but he also talked to the CEO face-to-face. After he found out all these communications turned out to be in vain, he resigned and resolved to turn his vision into reality at his start-up, QuarkChain.

Since then, QuarkChain has been gaining huge popularity around the globe.It owns a flexible blockchain infrastructure with high throughput and is compatible with other public chains. QuarkChain’s CEO, Qi Zhou, was the Facebook engineer mentioned above. Besides Facebook, most of QuarkChain’s technology team members come from Google, Amazon and Uber.

Facebook’s announcement of Libra has invigorated the QuarkChain community because of the lineage between QuarkChain and Facebook. Will QuarkChain support Libra? This is a frequently asked question within the community. If you understand the core technology of QuarkChain, the answer is absolute YES!!.

What makes QuarkChain so powerful to be able to accommodate Libra? Let’s find out!

About QuarkChain

QuarkChain is a flexible, highly scalable and easy-to-use blockchain underlying architecture that integrates security, decentralization,high throughput, and efficiency. QuarkChain is looking to execute over 100,000+TPS in the future.

Vitalik Buterin, founder of Ethereum also agrees that sharding is the future of blockchain infrastructure. Not only can sharding solve the performance problem, but it can also realize multiple functions by setting up different shards. Currently, most sharding projects only consider the scalability of performance and throughput. QuarkChain’s design extends beyond these performance issues to include expansion. It is the first company to fully implement state sharding technology.

Thanks to the flexible use of state sharding, QuarkChain can customize each shard based on four factors: consensus mechanism, ledger model, transaction model, and token economics and thus compatible with most blockchain projects.

With a two-layer blockchain structure, the root layer ensures the security of the entire network and executes fast cross-shard transactions.

Unique Two-layer Architecture,Meeting Changes With Constancy

Defi, cross-chain, and staking have been popular recently and many blockchain projects have scrambled to redesign in order to cater to the popular demand. On the contrary, thanks to the unique two-layer infrastructure, QuarkChain can accommodate those features with minimal efforts.

QuarkChain’s blockchain has consisted of two levels. The first level, which is called shard layer, is a set of several separate blockchain networks (shards). All transactions are processed and stored on this level. The second layer, also known as the root layer, is a blockchain network that “confirms” the shard layer blocks. The number of shards in the shard layers can be added dynamically to improve the throughput of the network. Besides, it can also add characteristics by the four factors: consensus mechanism, ledger model, transaction model, and token economics.

I: Advantages Of The Two-layer Architecture

1.1 Root Layer Provides Security For Network

QuarkChain adopts the original consensus algorithm-Boson and a two-layer architecture. First of all, network hash power is distributed based on the Boson consensus algorithm in order to guarantee network security. The hash power of the root chain always exceeds 51% of the network hash power; when a fork appears at the shard, the node will trace back to the root chain to verify and determine which branch to accept. If one wants to launch a 51% attack on the shards, he or she must attack the root chain.

In addition, QuarkChain adopts an original PoSW, a proof-of-state-work. PoSW combines the advantages of PoW and PoS, which are staking and mining. Miners who stake QKC can enjoy the benefits of lower mining difficulty than miners who do not. In order to improve mining efficiency, miners have to choose either low mining efficiency or buying QKC. If someone wants to buy hash power to attack QuarkChain, he or she has to pay an extra price or buy QKC, which will increase the cost of attack. This PoSW mechanism renders the QuarkChain network more stable and also creates a brand new scenario for using QKC.

1.2 High Computational Performance of the Shard Layer

Since the root layer only confirms the transactions, procession and storage of transactions take place in the shard layer. As the shard layer has a linear scalability, theoretically, the QuarkChain network is able to provide a rate of 100,000 TPS.

1.3 Sharding Layer Provides Flexibility

With its great scalability, QuarkChain can easily redefine state sharding based on four factors: consensus mechanism, ledger model, transaction model, and token economics. QuarkChain supports different consensus mechanisms, including PoW, PoS and DPoS. It is also capable of launching its native tokens on the shards as well as operating different VMs.QuarkChain strikes a good balance between root chain and shards. Not only does it achieve great scalability but also maintains the independence and interactivity of each shard. QuarkChain’s state sharding solution is very much like the docker solution: lightweight, low cost, great performance, independence, and interactivity. It is predictable that QuarkChain will be as popular as docker was after its major launch. QuarkChain’s state sharding solution will attract a lot of applications to its shards layer quickly. In other words, new concepts such as stable coins, PoS, Defi can all be transferred to QuarkChain network. From the start, Quarkchain held in mind the importance of compatibility for different modules and designed its network following this principle, which is why both PoS and BFT of Facebook can be used on the QuarkChain solution. This is the explanation of the high agility of Quarkchain’s solution to accommodate the latest trends in the blockchain.

II: Transverse Node Scalability De-centralization

A node where the whole network ledger is saved can be extremely expensive. In order to avoid a centralized supernode, QuarkChain supports the formation of the cluster that is made up of multiple cheap nodes, which together can perform the function of a supernode. This design can avoid centralization and as a result, the whole network is more secure.

III: An Easy Way of Managing The Account

In the QuarkChain network, every user only needs to create one account to gain access to the whole blockchain network, only one private key is needed to access all the shards.

Lots of Common Applications Are Adopting Blockchain

In the post-blockchain era, it is said that the key to gain popularity is accommodating for widely used applications. QuarkChain has numerous advantages in this regard:

  1. Data@Information System — 10 companies including Scidex
  2. Enterprise Service — 16 companies including Morpheus Labs
  3. Transaction & Debit and Credit — 9 companies including Loopring
  4. Dapps & Platform Application — 19 companies including Oath
  5. Entertainment & Games — 9 companies including Hash World

QuarkChain cooperates with companies from a variety of industries and has formed a well-balanced ecosphere in the blockchain industry.

Mainnet Has Been Launched

As is well known, top exchanges for ICO and mainnet launch are two good news for blockchain. Because of its strength, QKC has been highly favored by lots of exchanges since its ICO on KuCoin and Binance. QKC is available for trading on most of the major exchanges.

For better understanding, we have compiled a table with QuarkChain against other mainstream public chains:

Table 1 Sharding Projects that published testnet
Table 2. Performance Comparison With Other Famous Public Chains

There are some other questions raised to us recently. For instance, what is the difference between QuarkChain, Polkadot, and Cosmos? All three projects are related to the interaction between chains. Including Ethereum 2.0, these four projects can be compared in terms of the following aspects:

Flexibility

Shard chains of both Cosmos and QuarkChain are most flexible and support multiple consensus mechanisms.

Security

Both Ethereum 2.0 and QuarkChain use a long-term verified PoW consensus, thus they are the most reliable in terms of security.

Interaction

All four projects use an intermediary chain to coordinate the interaction among shard chains, Beacon Chain for Ethereum 2.0, Roo Chain for QuarkChain, Relay Chain for Polkadot, and Hub for Cosmos.

Development Schedule

Both QuarkChain and Cosmos has launched their mainnet while Ethereum 2.0 and Polkadot are still under development.

We summarize the discussion in the following table:

Table 3 Comparison With Other Famous Cross-chains

After QuarkChain Mainnet’s launch on April 30, 2019, we officially announced that the token swap starts! Please check the article for more details! Token Swap

Website:https://www.quarkchain.io
Telegram:https://t.me/quarkchainio
Twitter:https://twitter.com/Quark_Chain
Medium:https://medium.com/quarkchain-official
Reddit:https://www.reddit.com/r/quarkchainio/
Facebook:https://www.facebook.com/quarkchainofficial/
Discord:https://discord.me/quarkchain

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