Top-5 popular programming languages to learn

John Selawsky
May 8 · 13 min read
  • Is it easy to learn?
  • Is it easy to find the first job for inexperienced “this language” developer?

What do you need to know about Java

Java is a general-purpose language. That means it is good for almost everything. It is widely used in many different areas, more or less actively. I’ll talk about this below in a little more detail.

Where Java is used

Java is literally everywhere, from the newest Tesla auto to the small smart teapot or your Android phone. The big companies are using Java such as Airbnb, Uber, LinkedIn, eBay, Pinterest, Spotify and so on. Don’t forget about Google, this giant’s products were written mostly in Java.

  • API interfaces
  • Big data
  • Cloud Computing
  • Android apps
  • Banking apps
  • Embedded systems
  • Desktop apps

Is Java beginner friendly?

Java is a pretty easy language, logical and well-structured, but not the simplest one. It is much easier and more secure than C++, but the basics of Java are harder to learn than the basics of Python. Nevertheless, Java as a first language seems to be a good idea, since it teaches you a good tone in programming from your very first steps (unlike JavaScript, for example). Switching to Python if you know Java is a very simple process and “tough” C++ seems to be much easier to learn if you already know Java.

Is Java popular?

Java is one of the most popular languages. It is number one in TIOBE rating and number two in PYPL index. According to iDatalabs more than 164, 000 companies use Java, most of them located in the US.

Is it easy to find the first job for inexperienced Java developer?

Java is the best choice for the first job because there are many big projects that need not only experienced programmers but Juniors as well. Java is often used for huge enterprise software. It is usually designed with an eye on many years of work. It constantly needs to be modified and maintained. Sometimes new blocks are added. New code needs to be covered by unit tests and that kind of work is often entrusted to beginners, Java Junior Developers.

What do you need to know about Python

Python is a general-purpose language, so you can use it for solving different problems, usually, it is used for web.

Where Python is used

You can use Python everywhere and many well-known projects like Instagram, Pinterest, Dropbox, and Reddit use web applications made on Python.

  • Machine learning
  • Data analysis
  • Artificial intelligence
  • Scripting

Is Python beginner friendly?

Is Python popular?

Undoubtedly, Python is a very popular language, and its popularity is growing fast, thanks to clear syntax and educational institutions that use it for learning issues.It is #4 according to TIOBE and #1 in PYPL index. iDatalabs says, that there are more than 79,000 companies using Python.

Is it easy to find the first job for inexperienced Python developer?

There are some markets where demand for novice Python programmers is not very large, but in the US it is possible to find a company interested in a rookie backend developer or scriptwriter. I note that it will be much easier for newbies if they know Java, not Python.

What do you need to know about JavaScript

Classical JavaScript (not a Node.JS) is a scripting language for front-end development. This language helps you to create dynamically updating content, control multimedia, — make more or less everything you see on a website. So if you are interested in this, JavaScript is your best friend.

Where JavaScript is used

Pure JavaScript (often with frameworks such as jQuery and Angular) is used for a front-end (client-side) programming. NodeJS is a JavaScript for back-end programming.

Is JavaScript beginner friendly?

It is said to be the easiest path to get a career in programming. It is easy to start coding JavaScript right from your browser. Easy programs on this language are really easy. However, JavaScript is not ideal as a first language because it is dynamically untyped language and it is hard to debug the code.

Is JavaScript popular?

It is extremely popular because front-end is everywhere. JavaScript takes 7th place in TIOBE and the third in PYPL.

Is it easy to find the first job for inexperienced JavaScript developer?

It is pretty easy because JavaScript uses almost every company. However, you should know that the number of front-end developers in a company is usually less than back-enders.

What do you need to know about PHP

PHP is not the best language according to professional developers. The reason is “bad design” and that means there is no clear philosophy of PHP. Trying to write a long program on PHP turns a developer’s life to hell.

Where PHP is used

PHP is one of the first specialized languages created especially for server-side Web development. So, there is no surprise that PHP is extremely popular. 80% of the top 10 million sites are written in PHP or use PHP partly. The most prominent examples are Facebook and Wikipedia.

Is PHP beginner friendly?

There are different opinions about this. Some experts believe that PHP has a rather low entry barrier. However, you should consider the features of the design of the language, which allow you to leave errors unnoticed. For inexperienced programmers, this is a very difficult ordeal.

Is PHP popular?

As I said above, PHP is very popular and about 80% of the top 10 million sites are written in PHP or use PHP partly. However, the situation is changing, its popularity is decreasing. Instead of PHP, backend web-developers prefer to use simpler and more powerful Python. It doesn’t mean PHP die out soon, it is just impossible: there are too many PHP-sites to make them disappear in a moment.

Is it easy to find the first job for an inexperienced PHP developer?

PHP gives you a good chance to find a freelancer job. WordPress, based on PHP is a very popular CMS among non-technical people, so they often order WordPress-sites (development and support) from freelancers.

What do you need to know about C++

C++ is a very powerful language. It is fast and uses computer resources rationally.

Where C++ is used

C++ is used where you need speed and scalability.

  • Desktop Applications based on the graphic user interfaces, such as Adobe Illustrator and Premiere
  • Compilers. Many compilers are mainly written in C++ or its elder non-object oriented bro C.
  • Operating Systems. Almost all Microsoft and some parts of Apple operating systems.
  • Browsers. C++ was used for Google Chrome and Firefox.
  • Tools for 3D animation, modeling, simulation, rendering.

Is C++ beginner friendly?

C++ is tough to learn as a first language. It has a lot of pitfalls. For example, C++ is an object-oriented language and that means the objects are created and destroyed pretty often. However, the approach to memory management is not organized well. The programmers themselves forces to monitor memory management in order to avoid memory leaks and dangling references. That’s not easy. С++ is the only one language from this list that I recommend learning strictly with a mentor.

Is C++ popular?

It is popular and according to the TIOBE Index for April 2019, C++ is currently rising in popularity. Now C++ moves into #3. However, the language is still far away from its popularity at the beginning of this century when it had a market share of more than 15%. In PYPL rating C++ together with C are #6.

Is it easy to find the first job for inexperienced C++ developer?

Well…. C++ developer is a good developer by definition. Usually, beginners in C++ have experience in other languages. If you are really interested in creating games and so on, you will find a good job sooner or later. However, you should remember: C++ developer’s path is a path of a struggler.

Conclusions

  • If you don’t know what you want to do in the future, choose Java.
  • Enterprise? Java.
  • If you want to be a scientist programmer choose Python or Java.
  • C++ is the best for creating mainstream video games but it is a very hard language for a newbie.
  • Mobile development? Java.
  • If you want to learn your first language as fast as possible choose Python.
  • If you want to learn a language and later have an opportunity to switch as fast as possible learn Java.
  • If you want to be a front-end developer, learn JavaScript.
  • Learn the basics of JavaScript after your first language in any case.
  • Don’t forget to practice your coding every day independently of your choice!

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Thanks to Keyul.

John Selawsky

Written by

A senior Java developer and Java tutor at Learning Tree International programming courses. In Java We Trust.

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Find the best tutorials and courses for the web, mobile, chatbot, AR/VR development, database management, data science, web design and cryptocurrency. Practice in JavaScript, Java, Python, R, Android, Swift, Objective-C, React, Node Js, Ember, C++, SQL & more.