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Virtualization to containers

Apr 5, 2016 · 4 min read

Server virtualization

About virtualization

According to the Wikipedia, virtualization refers to the act of creating a virtual (rather than actual) version of something, including virtual computer hardware platforms, operating systems, storage devices, and computer network resources.

Visualization began in the 1960's. In 1964, IBM developed a Virtual Machine Monitor to run their various operating systems on their mainframes providing a way to logically partition these big computers into separate virtual machines.

About server virtualization

Server virtualization can be defined as the partitioning of a physical server into several small and isolated virtual spaces. These virtual spaces can be used by multiple users for their respective requirements.

Why need server virtualization

There are lot of benefits of using server virtualization. The financial motivation is number one on the list.

Types of server virtualization

There are three main categories of server virtualization techniques.

In this article we mainly focused on OS level and Hardware level virtualization technologies.

Hardware level virtualization/emulation

Specialized software called hypervisor, creates virtual hardware(exactly replicate real hardware) for OS. They can hold multiple OS in single server. Each OS loaded into a virtual machine and works as standalone and unmodified OS.

There are two classes of hypervisors exists

Type 1 hypervisor

Type 1 hypervisors run directly on the system hardware without needing any operating system. They are often referred to as a “native” or “bare metal” or “embedded” hypervisors.

Following are some examples of Type 1 hypervisors

Type 2 hypervisor

Type 2 hypervisors run on a host operating system. They cannot directly communicate with hardware. That’s why it requires operating system to communicate with hardware.

Following are some examples of Type 2 hypervisors

Advantages of hardware level virtualization

Disadvantages of hardware level virtualization

Operation system level virtualization

In operating system level virtualization, the kernel of the operating system allows to run multiple isolated user spaces. It means one operating system and one kernel involved in here. All the user spaces shares the kernal as well as the resources such as CPU, RAM, Hard disk, and network etc of the original host server.

Each user space has its own file system, system libraries, process tables and network configuration. These user spaces knows as containers, since they creates self contained environment.

Following are some examples of OS level virtualization tools

These tools are more populer in PaaS(Platform as a Service) providers.

Advantages of OS level virtualization

Disadvantages of OS level virtualization



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