Top 13 Terpenes Found in Hemp
Pinene is the most common naturally occurring terpenoid in nature and is responsible for the pine taste in many popular strains. It is found in many other plants, such as pine trees. Pinene is a bronchodilator and has analgesic, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, and antioxidant effects.
Linalool has a floral scent with spicy overtones and has analgesic, antidepressant, anti-epileptic, anti-inflammatory, anti-psychotic, anxiolytic, and sedative effects. Linalool is found in several flowering plants including lavender, basil, and hops.
Myrcene is the smallest terpene but the most prevalent terpene found in most varieties of cannabis. Myrcene dictates whether a strain will have an indica or sativa effect. Strains high in myrcene will result in a “couch lock” effect, the lazy feeling, while strains with low levels of Myrcene will produce a more energetic high. Myrcene has earthy, fruity notes and analgesic, antibacterial, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, anti-insomnia, anti-proliferative/ant-mutagenic, anti psychotic, and antispasmodic effects. Myrcene can also be found in hops, lemongrass, and mango.
Limonene is a dominant terpene in strains that have a pronounced sativa effect. Limonene has a strong citrus odor and flavor and aids in the absorption of other terpenes through the skin and mucous membranes. It has antidepressant, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, anxiolytic, gasto-pesphageal reflux (reduces acid reflux), immunostimulant effects.
Caryophyllene is a spicy terpene. It is the only terpene known to interact with the body’s endocannabinoid system (CB2). Caryophyllene has analgesic, antibacterial, antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, antioxidant, anxiolitic, analgesic, and neuroprotective effects.
Humulene contributes to the “hoppy” aroma of cannabis. Humulene has analgesic, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, and anorectic (appetite suppressant) effects.
Bisabolol has a light, sweet floral aroma and is known to have antimicrobial, anti-inflamatory, and anti-irritant effects. Bisabolol has also shown to be a pro-apoptotic agent for acute leukemia cells. Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek word meaning “falling off”) is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms. It involves a series of biochemical events that lead to characteristic cell changes (morphology) and death. It is an orderly and natural process that involves the recycling of cellular machinery and nutrient.
Ocimene is used in perfumes for its pleasant odor. In nature this terpene acts as part of the plants defenses and possesses antifungal properties. Ocimene can be found in a variety of plants and fruits. It is recognized by its sweet, fragrant, herbaceous, and woodsy aromas. Ocimene occurs naturally in botanicals as diverse as mint, parsley, pepper, basil, mangoes, orchids, kumquats, and of course hemp.
Valencene contributes to the citrus odor of cannabis. The effects of valencene are being researched.
Terpinolene has smoky or woody notes. Terpinolene acts as a sedative and also has antibacterial, anti-fungal, anti-insomnia, anti-proliferative, and antioxidant effects. It can be found in a variety of other pleasantly fragrant plants including nutmeg, tea tree, conifers, apples, cumin, and lilac.
Geraniol has rosy, floral notes. It is an effective mosquito repellent and shows a potential protective effect against neuropathy.
Terpineol has a pleasant lilac smell. It is known for having relaxing effects.
Selina-3, 7 (11)-diene
Selina-3, 7 (11)-diene is a more recently discovered terpene whose properties are still being explored. It has been used in various antimicrobial studies in essential oil testing and has shown promise with inhibiting microbial