The powerful neo-Nazi network destroying the European Union from within

Nafeez Ahmed
Jun 22, 2016 · 20 min read

by Nafeez Ahmed

Part 3 of Return of the Reich: Mapping the Global Resurgence of Far Right Power — an INSURGE intelligence investigative series commissioned by Tell MAMA

Nazis are on the march across Europe. But you won’t hear the jackboots. Because while they see the European Union as their enemy, they are infiltrating EU structures to consolidate their political influence at home and abroad.

Since the 2014 European elections, alliances with mainstream political parties have granted the far-right access to millions of Euros in funding — quantities that can act as a catalysing game-changer for traditionally fringe parties with minimal funding and marginal national support.

One of these parties, the German AfD, was belatedly expelled from the European Conservative and Reformist Group in March 2016 — three months after AfD leaders called for German border police to shoot illegal civilian refugees.

But the AfD’s neo-Nazi heritage and ideology is part of a curious pattern in the way the ECR, led by the Conservative Party that currently runs the British government, has welcomed such parties into the fold.

Three other partners in the Tory coalition — the Danish People’s Party and the True Finns, and the Independent Greeks — have also displayed alarming but little-understood neo-Nazi sympathies. While the Independent Greeks are no longer directly represented in the ECR, the two other parties remain members, and an MEP formerly affiliated with the Greek party maintains a senior leadership role in the coalition.

All three parties have demonstrated far-right affiliations. Yet the MEPs associated with them remain in the ECR.

One of them is a confessed ‘counter-jihadist’ closely affiliated to the network that inspired Norwegian terrorist Anders Breivik. Another is a convicted racist and member of a neo-Nazi fraternity. A third is a former member of a party that, under his watch, tolerated anti-Semitism at the highest levels and courted a Russian fascist who praised the Nazi SS.

The international platform and funding provided by the European Parliament has played a key role in propelling these neo-Nazi parties to power at home. The larger a group in the EU parliament, the greater the millions worth of EU funding it receives, the more of its MEPs are able to join EU policy committees, and the more access the group has to key parliamentary debates.

As the third largest group in the European Parliament, the ECR provides a particularly powerful international platform, with significant policy influence, and most importantly, a funding boost that permits its otherwise domestically-marginal member parties a financial and political edge to spur national campaigning.

Riding the wave of Tory respectability, and exploiting local disillusionment with mainstream politics, all three parties have grown into powerful political forces at home, with extensive leverage in their domestic parliaments, and the ability to directly impact government policymaking.

The Breivik connection

So deep does the rabbit-hole go that one of the Tory-led ECR’s handpicked senior leaders is connected to an anti-Muslim website that inspired Norwegian terrorist Anders Breivik, who massacred 77 students in July 2011 as part of his professed crusade against Islam.

Morten Messerschmidt, a Danish Peoples Party (DPP) MEP since 2009, is Vice Chair and Chief Whip of the ECR. He is also a convicted racist, and a subscriber to Breivik’s bizarre anti-Muslim ideology, the so-called ‘Vienna school of thought.’

Convicted racist Morten Messerschmidt is a Danish Peoples Party (DPP) MEP since 2009, and is Vice Chair and Chief Whip of the British Conservative Party’s EU Parliamentary group, the European Conservatives and Reformists (ECR). He is also a sympathiser with the ‘Vienna school’ of fascism that inspired neo-Nazi terrorist Anders Behring Breivik

In 2001, Messerschmidt and other DPP members were responsible for putting up an advert that “equated the multi-ethnic community with mass rape, forced marriages, oppression of women and gang wars,” according to University Post[i], a magazine published by Copenhagen University where Messerschmidt teaches constitutional law:

“This earned him a racism conviction. Later he was alleged to have sung German songs from the Nazi era in a public restaurant on Adolf Hitler’s birthday. Against this last charge he successfully defended himself, and was cleared in court.”

His defence was that he was only singing German war songs.

But perhaps the most disturbing fact is that the ECR’s Vice Chair is associated with an anti-Muslim website that inspired Anders Breivik. In the same year that Messerschmidt won his landslide place in European Parliament, the budding MEP conducted a video interview[ii] with the notorious hate blog, Gates of Vienna.

The interview was conducted at a Washington DC conference sponsored by the International Free Press Society (IFPS) and Center for Security Policy (CSP).

The respected nonprofit civil rights law firm, the Southern Poverty Law Centre, describes IFPS as “an anti-Muslim coalition” run by a “European racist”; and classifies the CSP as an “anti-Muslim hate” group.[iii]

IFPS’ founder and head is Lars Hedegaard, who was convicted and later acquitted by the Danish Supreme Court of hate speech for telling a private gathering in 2009 that Muslims “rape their own children. It is heard of all the time. Girls in Muslim families are raped by their uncles, their cousins or their fathers.”

Lars Hedegaard, founder of the International Free Press Society

The name of the Gates of Vienna blog comes from the Muslim Ottoman empire’s siege of Vienna in 1683, which the site believes continues today through “Islam’s” efforts to “overrun Christian Europe.”

Breivik cited the Gates of Vienna blog 86 times in his manifesto. He saw it as among a handful of intellectual sources for what he dubbed “the Vienna school of thought.”

One of its most prominent contributors is ‘Fjordman’, the pseudonym for Peder Are Nøstvold Jensen, whose online writings were linked to 114 times by Breivik. Fjordman now strongly distances himself from Breivik in his public writings.

Peder Are Nøstvold Jensen, who uses the pseudonym ‘Fjordman’

Among the Gates of Vienna’s posts are detailed prescriptions[iv] for anti-Muslim paramilitary operations during a civil war with European Muslims, and even ‘A guide to amateur bomb-making.’ Fjordmam’s Gates of Vienna posts in particular repeatedly predict an inevitable race war within Europe between Muslims and their neighbours.

An extensive investigation by the anti-fascist charity Hope Not Hate in 2015 found alarming evidence that the Gates of Vienna blog was linked to a far-right plot to “incite a violent backlash from British Muslims, leading to serious disorder between Muslim and non-Muslim communities”, by hosting a cartoon exhibit featuring Muhammad.

The plot was reportedly part-masterminded by former Ukip parliamentary candidate Anne Marie Waters.

Image from Gates of Vienna website, caption reads: ‘Pegida UK visits Pegida DK (Denmark)’ — Paul Weston (left), Anne Marie Waters (far right), ‘Tommy Robinsin’ (next to Waters)

The scheduled keynote speaker for the proposed exhibition was Dutch PVV leader Geert Wilders. Also involved in planning the exhibit was ‘Tommy Robinson’, the ex-founding chief of the English Defence League (EDL), who now runs Pegida UK alongside Waters.[v]

In one post[vi] from June 9, 2011, about a month before Breivik’s terrorist attack, Fjordman complained that Western governments were complicit in “a policy of state-sponsored ethnic cleansing targeting the white majority population” and added:

“Yes, the Islamic creed by itself is inherently violent. No, it cannot be reformed, and Islam in any way, shape or form does not belong in the West. Islam, and all those who practice it, must be totally and physically removed from the entire Western world.”

The Gates of Vienna blog post containing the video interview with Messerschmidt is dated October 31, 2009, and reads: “Thanks to Vlad Tepes[vii] for help with the video production.”

The interviewer was James Cohen, who is on IFPS’ board. Cohen, who produced several video interviews on behalf of Gates of Vienna, is also a contributor to the Vlad Tepes blog credited by Gates of Vienna. Vlad Tepes similarly promotes essays by Fjordman.

Cohen became head of the ‘Jewish Division’ of the far-right EDL under Tommy Robinson’s leadership in 2011. The division has a dozen members, most of whom are not actually Jewish (if any), and has been roundly condemned[viii] by leading British Jewish organisations such as the Board of Deputies, Community Security Trust, among others.

In November that year, just a month after his Gates of Vienna interview, Morten Messerschmidt conducted another interview, this time with regular Gates of Vienna contributor Nicolai Sennels (a DPP politician who would later go on to found Pegida Denmark).

Messerschmidt told Sennels that in 20 years, the European Union would be overrun by a civil war with Muslims, exactly as articulated by the Gates of Vienna blog:

“There is no understanding [in the European Commission] that you cannot simply replace Europeans with Arabs without ‘Arabizing’ Europe… It is as if the Commission doesn’t even recognise this as a problem originating in Islam… Europe will be increasingly marred by autonomous Islamised areas. The riots we are observing today — in Nørrebro, Vollsmose in Denmark as well as in no-go zones of other EU countries — will no longer be mere riots, but will evolve into genuine insurgencies with demands for independence, complete implementation of Sharia etc. Europe will — perhaps not as soon as 20 years — see a development similar to that in the Balkans, where in Kosovo, for example, the Muslims have succeeded in driving out the Christians and declare an independent republic.”

Messerschmidt then made a direct reference to the ‘Gates of Vienna’:

“I believe the European citizens will come to their senses and throw off the tyranny. Europeans have always woken up to heroism in face of danger. Be it the Turks at the Gates of Vienna or the repressive aristocracy in France, the Europeans have always had faith in progress, fought for their cause and won.”

In sum, a deputy leader of the Tory-led ECR coalition has connected with far-right networks which inspired (unwittingly or otherwise) the 2011 terrorist attacks in Norway, and himself demonstrates proclivities towards Breivik’s ideology.

Danish counter-jihadis

Nor is Morton Messerschmidt a lone racist in the Danish Peoples Party (DPP).

Messerschmidt’s interviewer in November 2009, Nicolai Sennels, is a psychologist and DPP politician who stood unsuccessfully as a parliamentary candidate in Denmark in 2011. He abuses his background in psychology to promote racist theories on Muslim inbreeding, mental deficiencies and inherent criminality, which bear startling resemblance to eugenics theories.

Nicolai Sennels, DPP colleague of Messerschmidt, a former DPP parliamentary candidate, founder of Pegida Denmark, and proponent of Nazi eugenics-style theory of Muslim genetic inferiority

Half a year before he interviewed Messerschmidt, Sennels declared[ix]:

“After 40 years of constantly growing problems [caused by] Muslim immigrants in Europe, it is now clear to everyone: integration of Muslims in Western societies cannot be done.”

According to Sennels, nearly half of all Muslims in the world are inbred[x], and therefore genetically inferior:

Massive inbreeding within the Muslim culture during the last 1,400 years may have done catastrophic damage to their gene pool. The consequences of intermarriage between first cousins often have serious impact on the offspring’s intelligence, sanity, health and on their surroundings.”

Apart from having been a well-known regular contributor to the Gates of Vienna blog, Sennels has also been published[xi] on Robert Spencer’s Jihad Watch — the biggest ideological influence on Breivik’s manifesto, among other self-styled ‘counter-jihad’ websites.

In July 2010, Sennel posted an open letter[xii] to David Cameron via the Gates of Vienna blog, arguing that up to 30 per cent of all Turks “are the result of inbreeding”, and therefore suffer from “mental and physical handicaps” which “partly explain why the Turkish population already living in Europe proved to be incapable of integrating.”

No wonder that a month after the Norway attacks, Weekend newspaper correspondent Arne Hargis referred to Sennels’ online claims about the beginning of a “third world war” with Islam as being integral to the discourse that inspired Breivik’s terrorism. Sennels was upset about this, and in a further Gates of Vienna blog post, opined:

“I am now one of those who are accused of making Anders Breivik into a mass murderer… We are not at war with Islam, but Islam is at war with us… Islamic terror has no limits, and Muslim ghettos have no fatherland.”

While stating, “Only Breivik can assume the responsibility for his deplorable acts”, Sennels still managed to offer a thinly-veiled justification for the terror, arguing that it was Europe’s own democratically-elected governments, and those who voted for them, that provoked Breivik into violence:

“Breivik was fed up with the Leftist rulers’ careless policy toward a violent and totalitarian religion… Those who let Islam enter the Gates of Vienna, however, and sold their voters the dream of a happy multiculture [sic], have burdened themselves with a historically huge responsibility.”

In 2015, the former DPP parliamentary candidate went on to found Pegida in Denmark.

That year, Kristoffer Hjort Storm, the DPP’s parliamentary candidate for north Jutland, reportedly admitted[xiii] that some in the party were “bad racists”:

“Many perceive those of us in the DF as bad racists. There are some who are, but it is not all of us.”

The racism, however, appears to go all the way to the top. The DPP’s former leader, Pia Kjærsgaard — who in 2013 became the party’s values spokesperson — has routinely disparaged Muslims in general while issuing veiled calls for a mono-ethnic society.

Pia Kjærsgaard, DPP co-founder, former leader, current Speaker of the Danish Parliament

“In the Danish People’s Party we do not hide the fact we are against having Denmark turned into a multi-ethnic society,” she told a party annual meeting in 1997.[xiv]

In 2001, she focused specifically on Muslims:

“The fundamentalist perception of Islam still lives in the Middle Ages, and is incompatible with the Danish society. We cannot simply give free scope to people who in our opinion are more than 100 years behind in terms of norms and ways of living.”[xv]

The Copenhagen Post also reported that in the same year, she described Muslims as people who “lie, cheat and deceive” through a DPP newsletter. In 2013, in an interview with the Copenhagen Post, Kjærsgaard implied that ethnic minority Danish citizens were culturally more inclined to criminal activity, due to their ethnic origins:

“It is unfortunately a fact that second generation immigrants are far too highly represented in the criminal statistics… They are people with a different ethnic heritage and you don’t want to call them Danes. They are people from a different culture and understanding, or a lack thereof… They have a different approach to life. We also have a different legal system in Denmark than that of their or their parents’ birth country and they are therefore a bit more nonchalant regarding what they do.”

Kjærsgaard was appointed as Speaker of the Danish Parliament in 2015, cementing the DPP’s already significant influence on government policy.

The new Finnish Nazis

The True Finns (PS) (now known simply as the Finns Party) is another ongoing participant in the Tory-led ECR group, harbouring far-right sympathies and direct neo-Nazi affiliations.

Jussi Halla-aho is a Finn Party MEP who has been a member of the ECR since 2014. Like the DPP’s Messerschmidt, he is also a convicted racist[xvi], and is known in Finland for using his personal blog to wish “rape on ‘green-left’ women,” describe Islam as a “paedophile religion,” and advocate violence as “a very undervalued method of solving problems.”

Jussi Halla-aho, Finns Party MEP, member of Tory-led ECR — and convicted racist

In November 2011, the True Finns’ neo-Nazi agenda was outed when city council member Ulla Pyysalo, the parliamentary assistant to True Finns MP Juha Eerola, applied to join the neo-Nazi Finnish National Resistance Front, which openly describes itself as a ‘National Socialist’ movement.

In her application, which was leaked[xvii] by hackers, Pyysalo claimed that the True Finns party was “fighting for the same” objectives as the Finnish National Resistance Front:

“I am a city council member of the Perussuomalaiset [True Finn] party and I understand your ideology. You have my support!!!… After you hear what we have planned, you’ll see we are both fighting for the same thing… I sent you my contact information. Please do not distribute it if you are fighting for the fatherland.”

The PS responded to the scandal by cutting its losses — Pyysalo resigned.

But as veteran Finnish journalist Enrique Tessieri observed[xviii]:

“One of the most incredible matters about the Pyysalo case is the silence of the party and how PS MP Juho Eerola played down the Nazigate affair.”

He noted that the party had refused to make it clear that they “would not tolerate neo-Nazi organisations.”

Last year, another True Finns MP, Olli Immonen, proudly posted a photo[xix] of himself posing with members of the neo-Nazi Finnish National Resistance Front.

Olli Immonen, Finns Party MP proudly posing with his neo-Nazi friends from the Finnish National Resistance Front

Fellow MP Sampo Terho, chair of the True Finns parliamentary group did nothing about the incident beyond telling Immonen “to exercise caution.” His feeble excuse for inaction was that the party has no power over what its MPs do in their “spare time or who they associate with.”

True Finns MP Juha Eerola himself belongs to a far-right association, Finnish Power (Suomen Sisu), whose original policy statement[xx] (now deleted) advocated a white-supremacist ideology comparable to that of the Ku Klux Klan and American Nazi Party.

“Peoples of different nationalities shouldn’t be mixed to destroy historically developed cultures by replacing them with a global subculture,” the statement said.

Even back then, the association had merely replaced the idea of race with culture to avoid being accused of promoting “racial purity”. As its former chairwoman, Paula Päivike, once helpfully clarified[xxi]:

“We’re speaking about the purity of nations, not races. We see people as cultures. The fact that different people need to be smeared in the same place, sure that’s nice, but it only lasts a moment. Then people mix and become one culture.”

True Finn MEP Jussi Halla-aho, a member of the Tory-led ECR, is also a member of Finnish Power.

At home, the True Finns have become a political force to be reckoned with.

Now the second biggest party in Finland, party leader and co-founder Timo Soini has served as Finland’s Deputy Prime Minister and Foreign Minister since last year.

Greece’s moderate Nazi sympathisers

The third privately fascist ally in the ECR bloc from May 2014 to January 2015 was the Independent Greeks (ANEL) party, which is part of Greece’s Syriza-led coalition government.

In the 2014 European elections, the Independent Greeks candidate Notis Marias won his MEP spot, and joined the ECR to become one of its three Vice Chairs. Marias also had a senior position in the Independent Greeks as the party’s parliamentary spokesman. In early January 2015, he left the Independent Greeks and became an unaffiliated MEP, though he remains part of the ECR.

Notis Marias (left) with his ex-boss of the Independent Greeks, anti-Semite and fraterniser with Russian fascists, Panos Kammenos

During his tenure, Marias gained some notoriety for spearheading a joint ANEL initiative with Beppe Grillo’s neo-fascist Italian ‘Five Stars’ (M5S) movement which, among other things, has called for children of immigrants to be denied citizenship, and publicly declared that the party is “not anti-fascist.” The initiative, launched in August 2014, was to be an ‘anti-Merkel’ front of southern European countries.

Historian Nicholas Farrell has described[xxii] Grillo as “Italy’s new Mussolini.”

The Independent Greeks is generally known for its ultra-nationalist, anti-immigrant stance. Yet its fascist sympathies are masked by a more moderate tone than the openly neo-Nazi Golden Dawn, now the third most popular party in Greece.

Among the Independent Greeks’ policies is its call for a fixed “quota” of only 2.5 per cent non-Greeks in the country. As Lester Hollway wrote,[xxiii] “that spells bad news for the other 5.5%; over one million people who they don’t want in the country, which raises the spectre of deportations.”

Carefully, the ANEL has never clarified how it intends to achieve this quota, though they began taking early steps toward it in the summer of 2012. The party officially proposed to abolish a 2010 citizenship law allowing children born in Greece to legal immigrants to become Greek citizens. The ANEL proposal was backed up the openly neo-Nazi Golden Dawn, who made their own proposal in parliament along the same lines.

Despite frequent anti-Nazi invectives, the party harbours entrenched anti-Semitism. In December 2014, the party’s founding leader, Panos Kammenos — Greece’s incumbent defence minister — proclaimed[xxiv] that ‘the Jews’ in Greece do not pay taxes, essentially blaming all Jews for the country’s chronic national tax evasion problem.

The remark was rightly refuted by the Central Board of Jewish Communities in Greece, but no apology was forthcoming.

In the summer of 2015, another member of Kammenos’ party responded[xxv] to a report about attacks on European Jews with the following anti-Semitic tweet:

“Have you recorded the attacks of the Jews against all of us?”

That year, a Russian hacker group obtained private e-mails revealing that both Kammenos, among others in his coalition partner Syriza, had been in communication[xxvi] with Georgy Gavrish, a close friend and emissary of Russian fascist[xxvii] Alexander Dugin.

The leaked emails revealed that Dugin and his associates were attempting to foist on both the Independent Greeks and Syriza a pro-Russian anti-EU strategy. Since then, the Greek coalition government appears to have followed[xxviii] that strategy.

Aleksandr Dugin, Russian fascist and Nazi sympathiser with close ties to the Kremlin

A man with close ties to the Russian military and Kremlin, Dugin is credited with influencing President Vladmir Putin’s foreign policy vision. He has served as an adviser to State Duma chairman and Putin ally Sergei Naryshkin, and his disciple Ivan Demidov serves on the Ideology Directorate of Putin’s United Russia party. Mikhail Leontiev, reportedly Putin’s favorite journalist, is a founding member of Dugin’s own Eurasia Party.[xxix]

But Dugin has also endorsed key elements of the Third Reich and Italian fascism in many of his writings.

While selectively condemning Nazi atrocities, Dugin has simultaneously showered glowing praise[xxx] on one of their prime culprits, the Nazi SS, and given a thumbs-up to Nazi ideology.

In a 1992 article, for instance, he called the “Waffen-SS and especially the scientific sector of this organisation, Ahnenerbe, ‘an intellectual oasis in the framework of the National Socialist regime.’” Describing himself as a follower of the “Third Way,” he further praised national socialism as “the fullest and most total realisation” of the Third Way.

Since then, Dugin portrays himself as being opposed to Nazism and fascism, but in 2006, this did not stop him from publicly praising Otto and Gregor Strasser — the German brothers who helped Hitler develop the Nazi Party in the 1920s.

As of early 2015, with the defection of Notis Marias from the Independent Greeks, the direct ECR patronage over the party ended unexpectedly. Even so, the UK Tory Party’s willingness to allow the Independent Greeks into its European Parliamentary coalition clearly provided the Nazi-spirited group with significant international leverage, which it used to forge pan-European connections with other far-right groups like Italy’s M5S.

During his tenure under the Independent Greeks, Marias’ appointment to the ECR as Vice Chair, for instance, provided him membership[xxxi] of EU delegations to Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, the Mashreq countries (Egypt, Sudan, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Oman, Kuwait, the United Arab Emirates, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, and Iraq) and the Union of the Mediterranean (made of 43 European countries)

Meanwhile, Marias continues to be ECR Vice Chair despite his former affiliation with the Independent Greeks as the party’s parliamentary spokesman — and despite his ongoing failure to clarify his relationship with ANEL’s neo-Nazi sympathies and ideals, which he never denounced during his party affiliation.

In their eagerness to develop a broad coalition, the British Conservative Party’s ECR bloc has systematically welcomed neo-Nazi parties into their European Parliamentary coalition.

Wwhile publicly distancing themselves from Nazism and claiming to be opposed to fascist bigotry, these parties privately harbour deep-seated affiliations with neo-Nazi ideology and organisations.

Yet their stint with the ECR gave them access to the European Parliament’s infrastructure and millions of Euros in funding. In the wake of this unprecedented boost, at home some now sit within or near the helm of government, in alliance with mainstream or even left-wing parties.

The full consequences of this outcome are yet to unfold. Yet over the next few years, these parties have an unprecedented opportunity to consolidate their power.


[i] ‘Right wing politician Messerchmidt to teach at UCPH’, University Post (Copenhagen University, 20 August 2012)

[ii] ‘An Interview with Morten Messerschmidt’, Gates of Vienna blog (31 October 2009)

[iii] Stephen Piggot, ‘Anti-Muslim hate group invites European racists to speak at CPAC’, Hatewatch (Montgomery: Southern Poverty Law Center, 2 March 2016)

[iv] Jessica Elgot, ‘MPs call for “anti-Muslim paramilitary manual” website to be investigated’, Guardian (27 July 2015)

[v] Nick Lowles, The Muhammad Cartoons: The Counter-Jihadist Plot to Ignite a Civil War in Britain (London: Hope Not Hate, July 2015)

[vi] The Fjordman Report, ‘When Treason Becomes The Norm: Why The Proposition Nation, Not Islam, Is Our Primary Enemy’, Gates of Vienna blog (9 June 2011)


[viii] Marcus Dysch, ‘EDL picks new Jewish Division leader’, Jewish Chronicle (8 September 2011)

[ix] Linda Pershing, ‘First Anti-Islam March by Pegida Movement Fizzles in Denmark’, Truthout (29 January 2015)

[x] Nicolai Sennels, ‘Muslim Inbreeding: Impacts on intelligence, sanity, health and society’, Europe News (9 August 2010)

[xi] Gavin Titley, ‘They called a war, and someone came: The communicative politics of Breivik’s ideoscape’, Nordic Journal of Migration Research (Vol. 3, No. 4, 2013) pp. 216–224,$002fj$002fnjmr.2013.3.issue-4$002fnjmr-2013-0014$002fnjmr-2013-0014.pdf?t:ac=j$002fnjmr.2013.3.issue-4$002fnjmr-2013-0014$002fnjmr-2013-0014.xml

[xii] Nicolai Sennels, ‘Nicolai Sennels: An Open Letter to David Cameron’, Gates of Vienna blog,

[xiii] Ray W., ‘DF’er acknowledges that some in the party are racists’, Copenhagen Post (15 June 2015)

[xiv] Danks Folkeblad (1997)

[xv] Peter Hervik, The Annoying Difference: The Emergence of Danish Neonationalism, neoracism and populism in the post-1989 world (New York: Berghahn Books, 2011) p. 78

[xvi] Stephen Gardner, ‘Strange bedfellows’, Euro Correspondent (19 July 2014)

[xvii] Christopher Williams, ‘Anonymous hacktivists claim attack on neo-Nazis’, Telegraph (8 November 2011)

[xviii] Enrique Tessieri, ‘The PS’ lame stance on neo-Nazism’, Migrant Tales (5 November 2011)

[xix] ‘Finns Party MP given “stern words” for posing with Nazi group’, Yle Uuutiset (18–19 June 2015)

[xx] Tessieri, ‘How ideologically similar is Suomen Sisu to the Ku Klux Klan and U.S. American Nazi Party?’, Migrant Tales (25 March 2013)

[xxi] Ibid.

[xxii] Nicholas Farrell, ‘Beppe Grillo: Italy’s new Mussolini’, Spectator (2 March 2013)

[xxiii] Lester Hollway, ‘An unholy alliance: Syriza and the far right anti-immigration party’, Media Diversified (27 January 2015)

[xxiv] ‘Uproar after Greek party leader says Jews don’t pay taxes’, (18 December 2014),Uproar-after-Greek-party-leader-says-Jews-dont-pay-taxes.html

[xxv] Jonathan Zimmerman, ‘The More Polite Brand of Greek Anti-Semitism’, Forward (23 September 2015)

[xxvi] Hannah Gais, ‘Russia Gave Greece Only ‘Gas and Sympathy’, Moscow Times (15 April 2015)

[xxvii] Anton Shekhovtsov, ‘The Palingenetic Thrust of Russian Neo-Eurasianism: Ideas of Rebirth in Aleksandr Dugin’s Worldview’, Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions (Vol. 9, No. 4, December 2008) pp. 491–506

[xxviii] Meike Dullfer, Carsten Luther, and Zacharias Zacharakis, ‘Caught in the web of the Russian ideologues’, Zeit (7 February 2015)

[xxix] Andrey Tolstoy and Edmund McCaffray, ‘Mind Games: Alexander Dugin and Russia’s War of Ideas’, World Affairs (March/April 2015)’s-war-ideas

[xxx] Andreas Umland, ‘Will United Russia become a fascist party?’, Hurriyet Daily News (15 April 2008)

[xxxi] Notis Marias MEP homepage, History of Parliamentary Service

Tell MAMA independently and separately commissioned INSURGEintelligence to explore the network dynamics of far right extremism in Europe. The views and opinions in this investigative project do not necessarily represent those of Tell MAMA.

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