Ruby comes with a bunch of hook methods that allow you to manipulate classes, modules and objects on the fly.
Here is a list of the most important hook methods:
included, extended and prepended modules
These hook methods are invoked whenever a module is included, extended or prepended in another module or class.
They work pretty similarly. So here we’re going to detail the
included hook method
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This hook method allows you to add methods and attributes according to the class/module that includes the module where the hook method is defined.
This mechanism is actually used by the
The implementation is pretty similar for the
Module#prepended hook methods.
This hook method is called whenever a subclass of the class that implements the hook method is created
Tenant is a kind of user
This hook method is pretty handy when you want to define a variable or a
class_attribute at class definition for each children.
That’s exactly what the
ActiveRecord::Core module does with the
initialize_find_by_cache class method.
Hook methods can be pretty handy for class and module manipulation on the fly.
However, as they modify the module/class blueprint, it can provoke some undesired side effects like superclass method overriding, etc..
I’ll detail the
BasicObject#method_missing hook method in another article.
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Private & Protected: a matter of Message.