The Gaia Hypotheses: science or pseudoscience?

[image: Gaea, by Anselm Feuerbach (1875), Wikipedia]

I have been rather skeptical of the so-called Gaia Hypothesis, the notion that planet Earth is one large, self-regulating organism, as opposed to the environment in which a number of ecosystems have evolved. The notion was first proposed by independent scientist James Lovelock in the 1970s, and co-developed by the controversial biologist Lynn Margulis, famous for having proposed that some cellular organelles…

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Philosophy as a Way of Life

Philosophy as a Way of Life

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by Massimo Pigliucci. Practical philosophy, science, pseudoscience & good reasoning. Complete index of articles at https://massimopigliucci.org/essays/