Quick Guide to Quantum Physics: 24 Phenomenons Explained
God does not play dice with the universe
― Albert Einstein
The Big Bounce is a hypothetical scientific model of the formation of the known universe. It was originally suggested as a property of the cyclic model or oscillatory universe interpretation of the Big Bang where the first cosmological event was the result of the collapse of a previous universe
Quantum computing studies theoretical computation systems (quantum computers) that make direct use of quantum-mechanical phenomena, such as superposition and entanglement, to perform operations on data.
Not only does God play dice but… he sometimes throws them where they cannot be seen
― Stephen Hawking
Quantum Data Compression
The Quantum compression format is a little-known data compression method created by David Stafford.Quantum archive files are named with the filename extension .Q by convention.
Quantum Data Locking (Quantum Enigma Machine)
One of the most promising contemporary applications of quantum mechanics is within cryptography, where the laws of quantum physics certify the secrecy of a communication protocol.
Quantum Key Distribution (in Quantum Cryptography)
Quantum key distribution (QKD) uses quantum mechanics to guarantee secure communication. It enables two parties to produce a shared random secret key known only to them, which can then be used to encrypt and decrypt messages.
I am now convinced that theoretical physics is actually philosophy
— Max Born
Quantum Dense Coding (Superdense Coding)
In quantum information theory, superdense coding is a technique used to send two bits of classical information using only one qubit. It is the inverse of quantum teleportation, which sends one qubit with two classical bits.
Steering can occur in strongly entangled systems and implies a direction between the two parties involved, while entanglement without steering generally has no direction.
Quantum entanglement is a physical phenomenon that occurs when pairs or groups of particles are generated or interact in ways such that the quantum state of each particle cannot be described independently — instead, a quantum state may be given for the system as a whole.
We are thus forced to conclude that the quantum-mechanical description of physical reality given by wave functions is not complete
— Einstein, Podolsky, Rosen Paradox
Quantum Jumps (+method)
Electrons transition instantaneously between energy levels within an atom all at a random time
Quantum Non-Demolition Measurement
Quantum nondemolition (QND) measurement is a special type of measurement of a quantum system in which the uncertainty of the measured observable does not increase from its measured value during the subsequent normal evolution of the system.
I am a Quantum Engineer, but on Sundays I Have Principles
―John Stewart Bell
In theoretical physics, quantum nonlocality is the phenomenon by which measurements made at a microscopic level contradict a collection of notions known as local realism that are regarded as intuitively true in classical mechanics.
Quantum One-Time Pad
In cryptography, the one-time pad (OTP) is an encryption technique that cannot be cracked if used correctly. In this technique, a plaintext is paired with a random secret key. The same method knows as QOTP can be applied in quantum cryptography using quantum key exchange
Quantum State Tomography
Quantum tomography or quantum state tomography is the process of reconstructing the quantum state (density matrix) for a source of quantum systems by measurements on the systems coming from the source
Quantum superposition is a fundamental principle of quantum mechanics. It states that much like waves in classical physics, any two (or more) quantum states can be added together (“superposed”) and the result will be another valid quantum state; and conversely, that every quantum state can be represented as a sum of two or more other distinct states.
Quantum teleportation is a process by which quantum information (e.g. the exact state of an atom or photon) can be transmitted (exactly, in principle) from one location to another, with the help of classical communication and previously shared quantum entanglement between the sending and receiving location.
Quantum tunnelling or tunneling (see spelling differences) refers to the quantum mechanical phenomenon where a particle tunnels through a barrier that it classically could not surmount. This plays an essential role in several physical phenomena, such as the nuclear fusion that occurs in main sequence stars like the Sun
Quantum Uncertainty (of the irreducible variety)
In quantum mechanics, the uncertainty principle, also known as Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle, is any of a variety of mathematical inequalities asserting a fundamental limit to the precision with which certain pairs of physical properties of a particle, known as complementary variables, such as position x and momentum p, can be known simultaneously.
What we observe is not nature itself, but nature exposed to our method of questioning
— Werner Karl Heisenberg
Quantum Wave-Particle Duality (Quantum Interference)
Wave–particle duality is the fact that every elementary particle or quantic entity exhibits the properties of not only particles, but also waves. It addresses the inability of the classical concepts “particle” or “wave” to fully describe the behavior of quantum-scale objects.
Quantum Zero-Point Energy
Zero-point energy, also called quantum vacuum zero-point energy, is the lowest possible energy that a quantum mechanical physical system may have; it is the energy of its ground state.