Epictetus Argues Against the Death Penalty

Stoic Philosophy, Ethics, and Cosmopolitanism

A second century Roman lamp, photo by the Author

The ancient Stoics were ahead of their time in a number of ways. Their philosophy was truly cosmopolitan, recognizing one human community worldwide. While they were certainly not feminists, they explicitly said that women are just as capable as men to learn philosophy and be virtuous. They openly referred to slavery

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