Marcus Aurelius on Socrates

What the Stoic Emperor Learned from the Athenian Philosopher

Artwork from Verissimus: The Stoic Philosophy of Marcus Aurelius, copyright Donald J. Robertson

In 175 AD, probably for the first time in his life, in his mid-fifties, the Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius, set foot in Athens. It was in fact a pilgrimage for him. During of the “War of Many Nations” he’d been fighting along the Danube frontier, he had taken a sacred oath that he would travel to Athens, if…

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