Stoic q&a: happiness, virtue, or tranquillity — what is the ultimate end of life?

[image: by Nina Uhlíková from Pexels]

G. writes: I have a question that puzzles me regarding Stoicism and eudaimonia, after reading Aristotle. He says in the Nicomachean Ethics Book I that happiness is the absolute end, since it is not the mean towards another end. Seneca says something similar about virtue in “On the Happy Life.” It’s rather confusing for me to regard eudaimonia as an

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