Toward the Fifth Stoa: the return of virtue ethics, part II

Stoa at Ephesus, photo by the Author

Why Stoicism?

In ancient times, Stoicism went through three phases, known
as the early, middle, and late Stoas. The early period was centered in Athens around figures such as Zeno of Citium, the founder of the sect, his student Cleanthes, and Chrysippus, one of the major logicians of antiquity. The middle period marked the diaspora from Athens and the spread…