# Basic Introduction To R Programming Language

In this article we will cover the intro basics to **R Programming Language**. This article is meant for people willing to start programming in R, beginners in R who are willing to expand their already gained knowledge in R, or people willing to start their Data Science journey using R programming language. If you are familiar with other programming languages, getting to understand R programming language will be as easy as drinking water.

# What is R?

Well! It is a programming language, often used in statistics and data science, but let’s get a clear definition from Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/R_(programming_language)

According to Wikipedia:R is a programming language and free software environment for statistical computing and graphics supported by the R Foundation for Statistical Computing. The R language is widely used among statisticians and data miners for developing statistical software and data analysis.

R language provides a wide variety of statistical (linear and nonlinear modelling, classical statistical tests, time-series analysis, classification, clustering, …) and graphical techniques, and is highly extensible. READ MORE>>

# How to Install and Getting Started With R

Since this article focuses on the basics of R programming language, for instruction on how to install R and R studio please Check this Edx Article

Once you have R and Rstudio installed, let’s proceed to the business of the Day.

# Intro To R Basics

## Hello, World!

It’s now like a rule that the first code you write when beginning to learn a programming language is a code that will display `Hello, World!`

on the screen. In order to display on the screen, R provides the `print()`

function

invisibly

In order to print `Hello, World!`

in R, you need to pass the string `"Hello, World!"`

in the `print()`

function. the strings can be in double quotes `""`

or single quotes `''`

.

The output will be as follows:

`[1] "Hello, World!"`

## Creating and Naming Variables

**Variables** helps your program claim a piece of memory when it’s running. In R, variables allow you to store a value or an object. In simple terms, a variable is a named storage space. The variables created can later on be used in your program to perform various operations. In R, `<-`

, `=`

or `->`

are used as the Assignment Operator to assign values to a variable name. Before creating variables, you must adhere to the rules of creating a Variable in R.

## Rules for Naming Variables in R

- Variable names
**MUST**start with a letter, it can contain a letter, number, underscore (`_`

) and period (`.`

).

unlike other languages,

Underscore(

_)at the beginning of the variable name areNOTallowed in R

- Keywords
**CANNOT**be used to name variables - Special Character like
`#`

, or`&`

and whitespace eg tab or space**CANNOT**be used in variable names - Variable names are
**Case Sensitive**, therefore,`my_name`

is different from`my_Name`

.

Below are examples of correct variable names and assignment in R:

Their output are as follows:

`[1] 17`

[1] "Victor"

[1] 17347.38

# R Arithmetic Operators

An **operator** is a symbol that tells the compiler to perform specific mathematical or logical manipulations. R Arithmetic Operators are symbols that tells the compiler which mathematical operation to perform. R language supports the following arithmetic operators:

Let us use R arithmetic operators to calculate my age. We will use the already gained knowledge of variables and arithmetic operations we’ve discussed above.

`[1] 19`

As you can see `age`

is a variable that stores the computations done when **subtracting** `year_of_birth`

from `current_year`

.

# Comments in R

R makes use of the `#`

sign to add comments. Comments are added to a source code so that you and others can understand what the R code is about. Comments are not run as R code, so they will not influence your programs computation computations.

`[1] 19`

# Basic Data Types in R

There are numerous data types in R programming language, we will cover the `4`

basic types, that is, **numerics**, **integers**, **logical** and **characters**

Data type is the classification/categorization of data item. Everything in python is an object therefore, data types are classes and variables are the instance (object) of the data type. Use

`class(variable_name)`

in order to understand to which data type a variable belongs.

To get you started with R Basic Data types, note the following:

- Decimal values are called numerics
- Natural Numbers are called Integers, Integers are also numerics
- Boolean values, eg(
`FALSE`

or`TRUE`

) are called logical. R is case sensitive, logicals must be in UPPERCASE - String values/text values are called characters

`[1] "numeric"`

[1] "numeric"

[1] "character"

[1] "logical"

# More Resources

And that marks the end of this article, keep an eye for more R articles as I cover more of R programming language to get you started in Data Science with R. Have any question? Ask Me on the comments.