Did the Ancient Stoics Believe in a Living Cosmos? Does It Matter?

[photo: Hubble Space Telescope, NASA]

Stoicism needs an update, a 2.0 version, if you will. That’s because it is an ancient philosophy which began (around 300 BCE) and flourished (up until the second century CE) during a period in which modern science didn’t exist and our understanding of the world (natural philosophy) was very limited. Unlike other philosophical traditions (e.g., Buddhism), Stoicism got…