My first Vue3 component

Roberto Butti
The Startup
Published in
5 min readJul 4, 2020

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How to build a Vue 3 reactive component with Vite 3.

I like to work with Vuejs, and today I tried to use the next version of Vuejs: Vue3.

My first question was: how can I create a new Web Application with Vue3 and the right npm dependencies?

To do that, I used Vite as a build tool. Vite is an amazing web dev build tool that serves your code via native ES Module imports during dev and bundles it with Rollup for production. Vite uses Vue3. So if we use Vite we have an amazing fast build tool and we have all vue3 dependencies ready to use.

This post is updated for using ViteJS version 3

Install the skeleton for Vue 3

In order to install Vite and your sample application based on Vue3:

npm create vite@latest rollthedice -- --template vue
cd rollthedice
npm i
npm run dev

Now you can open your browser at: http://localhost:5173/

Vite and Vue example page
Vite + Vue starter page

Yes, you are running a Vue3 web application.

Roll the dice web application

Now I would like to create a very simple “Roll the Dice” web application.

The user can click a button in order to generate a random number (from 1 to 6) and update the text where the result is shown and the list of the previous rolls. This example is very simple but useful for walking through the basic stuff of Vue3, starting to understand the main differences with Vue2, and looking at the CompositionAPI.

So now let’s jump on the code.

The Code

The command “npm create vite@latest” created for you a basic skeleton of Vue3 web application. Now we will focus on 2 files.

  • src/App.vue: where your component is loaded
  • src/components/RollTheDice.vue: is the file that we will create from scratch with the template and the logic of our component (the button, the labels, the function that generates a random number). By default, our skeleton provides a HelloWorld.vue basic component. My suggestion for you is to take a look at this file, just to understand the structure. You will not see so many differences with Vue2. Now, create a new empty file RollTheDice.vue in the src/components directory, where we will test and try some basic functionalities of Vue3.
The basic structure of your Vue3 web application

The src/App.vue file

The main goal of App.vue file is to load the component.

<template>
<!-- ##001: use the component in template -->
<RollTheDice />
</template>
<script>
// ##002: import the component
import RollTheDice from './components/RollTheDice.vue'
export default {
name: 'App',
components: {
// ##003: declare the component
RollTheDice
}
}
</script>
  • ##001: we are using the component in the template, in this case we don’t need to pass any props to the component so <RollTheDice /> is enough;
  • ##002: import the component;
  • ##003: declare the component

So, as you can see, no differences with Vue2.

Let’s create the new component file: src/components/RollTheDice.vue.

The new src/components/RollTheDice.vue file

The component file is a little longer than the App.vue.

Let me split it into two parts. The first one is the template part, where we will use some variables and functions that we will cover in the script section.

So, two-part: one is the template and the last one is the script. Both are included in the same file RollTheDice.vue.

The template

The first part of the file is for the template:

<template>
<h1>Number is: {{ dice }}</h1>
<div>Number of rolls: {{ rolls.length }}</div>
<div>Total: {{ total }}</div>
<button @click="roll()">Let's roll the dice</button>
<button @click="restart()">Restart</button>
<ul>
<li v-for="(t, index) in rolls" :key="index">
{{ t }}
</li>
</ul>
</template>

As you can see we are using:

  • some reactive variables: dice, an array rolls (we are using length attribute);
  • a computed function total, computed function is to recalculate the value once of the reactive variables (used in the computed function) changes;
  • a couple of functions called by a user action (click on a button): roll() and restart().

The script

<script setup>
// ##001 : we are using script setup
// ##002 : import ref and computed from vue3
import { ref, computed } from "vue";
// ##003 : declare and initialize 2 reactive variables dice and rolls
const dice = ref(0);
const rolls = ref([]);
// ##004: implement roll function (inside setup() )
function roll() {
dice.value = Math.floor(Math.random() * Math.floor(5)) + 1;
rolls.value.unshift(dice.value);
}
// ##005: implement restart function (inside setup() )
function restart() {
dice.value = 0
rolls.value = [];
}
// ##006: define a computed function (total)
const total = computed(() => {
let temptotal = 0;
for (let i = 0; i < rolls.value.length; i++) {
temptotal = temptotal + rolls.value[i]
}
return temptotal;
});
</script>
  • ##01 setup script, we are defining a script setup instead of using the setup function (composition API). If you are interested in understanding the differences “script setup” VS “composition API setup()” take a look https://vuejs.org/api/sfc-script-setup.html;
  • ##002 import ref and computed from Vue3: we need to import some functionality from Vue3 like ref for declaring variables as reactive and computed for declaring computed function;
  • ##003 declare 2 reactive objects dice and rolls. To make them reactive we will “encapsulate” the number and the array in ref objects. So dice is not just a simple integer but it is a ref object. For this reason, later when we will need to access to dice value we will use dice.value. We will do the same for the ref array rolls.
  • ##004 implement the roll() function in order to change the value of dice and add on top of the array rolls the new dice value (to keep track of all rolls);
  • ##005 implement the restart() function in order to re-initialize dice and rolls (we are accessing to them via value attribute);
  • ##006 define the total computed function. When something will change in rolls array, the total is evaluated again. In the template we can use total computed function as we use the variables.

That’s all for now. So if you have your “npm run dev” you have a hot reload provided by Vite so go to your browser, go to http://localhost:5173/ and take a look at your new Vue3 web application.

The result

Roll the dice

References

This is a list of useful links:

I’m exploring Vue3 so if you have some feedback, please let me know in the comments. Thank you!

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Roberto Butti
The Startup

I’m technophile. Vuejs and Laravel enthusiast! #vuejs #laravel. I love #coding