Stop this Microservices Madness

Federico Pugliese
Jan 19 · 6 min read

I’m a big fan of Microservices.
Does it sound weird, given the title? Well, it should not.

Every now and then, a new paradigm or technology arises. It brings hope and hype. This will save us all!
Yeah, it’s true. Maybe it is ground-breaking. Extremely beneficial. However, like everything in life, every solution has its scope.

Have you ever tried to apply Newtonian laws to subatomic particles? Or, have you ever tried to squeeze a television into a sock? Pretty much the same here.
Hype makes you forget this little clause at the end of the contract. And results are catastrophic.

Image for post
Image for post
Proper usage of socks and televisions. Photo by Mollie Sivaram on Unsplash

Splitting is the way

When you use Microservices, instead, you have several, distinct processes, each one serving just a subset of requests. Each process runs a distinct package, with just the code it needs.

Is it really new?

The Microservice pattern is nothing new, actually, like almost every emergent design (besides it has been around for some years).
It is Object-Oriented Programming applied on a higher level: application architecture.

No coincidence that it often makes use of HTTP APIs, particularly RESTful, which are in turn OOP principles applied to API design.
P.S. I hate acronyms.

Let me explain.

When you create a program using Object-Oriented Programming, you split it into several pieces, Classes. Each Class represents a component of the solution and has a specific role. It also works just on its own subset of data. Does it sound familiar?

This is not the right place to discuss about Object-Oriented Programming in general, but I have to point out some aspects. If you are not familiar with it, you can reference online documentation and, soon, my other article about it!

The Two Principles — The Good Tailor

To be honest, these should be the guiding stars of each software project, not just OOP ones. But that’s another story. Or is it?

High cohesion is the situation where each component is strongly consistent. All its data and methods refer to a very specific area, or meaning, or role.

Loose coupling is the situation where each component has the least possible amount of interactions with other components. It can work on its own, hiding low-level details, and exposes the essential interfaces.

For Microservices it is the same.
I can’t stress this enough. A good OOP design leads to an optimal Microservice design. There is no middle ground.

This should be almost enough to answer why and when to use Microservices. But since there is more, let’s break it down.

Image for post
Image for post
Be a Good Tailor. Loosely sew highly-entangled (coherent) fabrics. Photo by Jeff Wade on Unsplash

When to split?

When you can respect high cohesion and loose coupling.

No differently.

You know how to split code into Classes in the right way. Why would you split your Microservices randomly?
If a bad Class diagram is painful to maintain and manage, because of the sparsity of code in different files, think of randomly split Microservices application, where you have different processes altogether.

But why on Earth would I split my application into sub-processes?

Microservices, instead, live in different processes. Possibly, on different machines. You have to communicate over a network, using APIs.

It adds complexity!
You must have excellent reasons to do so.
Not for trend, not for fun. Because, I assure you, if you use Microservices randomly, their management is not fun at all.

Actually, you must have the same reasons you’d have when you decide to use APIs. It’s the same.

APIs let you hide all the implementation details behind them. That’s essential in some cases, and it offers incredible benefits.

1. Scalability for non-uniform traffic

If you receive thousands of calls for your Stock APIs and just a bunch of requests for your Vision APIs, you could just replicate your Stock Microservice.

No need to double your GPU resources!

Think of it. If you kept everything in a single machine or application, and you still wanted to scale to match all the incoming requests, you would have to replicate it entirely. A waste.

2. Error resilience

Why should the entire Bank application be down? Maybe some customers wouldn’t even notice, because they just want to see their movements or they want to use their cards.

3. Separate deployments

Also, you could put your Microservices on different machines, in different locations, maybe.

4. Complete isolation

5. Different requirements

There are plenty of reasons, some more common than others.

In those cases, split the application!
Probably it’s easier. But remember to respect the Two Principles! Be a Good Tailor, or you would have hard times sharing data between your Microservices…

Image for post
Image for post
Even the highest of Monoliths is made by blocks. It might be atoms, but it is. Photo by Zoltan Tasi on Unsplash

Is it not your case? Go for a Monolith.

You’ll have cleaner dependency management, and you won’t need complex orchestrations or distributed systems to trace errors, share data, collect logs, sync calls, secure network interactions… and I can go on.

Is Object-Oriented Programming not suitable for your application architecture? Or, better, is RESTful design not suitable? Microservices won’t be either!

And remember, Monolith doesn’t mean Mess


They are also spelled differently.

Someone sees Monolith as a bunch of unordered code.
They claim that Microservice pattern is the only way to have splits, order and all.

Well, I’ll reveal something.

It’s — not — true.

Your code design does not depend on process divisions. Object-Oriented Programming doesn’t either. If you split your code right, if you manage your dependencies in a clear hierarchy, as well as your files, you can achieve the same level of cohesion and decoupling.

And another secret: if you divide your APIs into separate packages/modules/controllers/blueprints/whatever in your code, then you can decide to serve them in a single process or split them in Microservices at build-time, or at run-time too, for free.



If used in the right context, for the right reasons, they solve issues and improve performances or costs.

But please, stop making them the one and only solution for all problems.
Because they can also be the root of all evil.

The Startup

Medium's largest active publication, followed by +773K people. Follow to join our community.

Medium is an open platform where 170 million readers come to find insightful and dynamic thinking. Here, expert and undiscovered voices alike dive into the heart of any topic and bring new ideas to the surface. Learn more

Follow the writers, publications, and topics that matter to you, and you’ll see them on your homepage and in your inbox. Explore

If you have a story to tell, knowledge to share, or a perspective to offer — welcome home. It’s easy and free to post your thinking on any topic. Write on Medium

Get the Medium app

A button that says 'Download on the App Store', and if clicked it will lead you to the iOS App store
A button that says 'Get it on, Google Play', and if clicked it will lead you to the Google Play store