Vending Machine design — A State design pattern approach

Animesh Gaitonde
Nov 17, 2019 · 6 min read

Designing a Vending Machine software using the State design pattern

Vending Machine


However, I knew the theory well & thanks to the book ‘Cracking the Coding Interview, I had understood the approach to tackle a software design interview question. In this article, I’ll walk you through the journey of how I started with a naive solution, improved the design, & finished off with a clean, modular and readable code.

Problem Statement

After all the clarification, the expectation was to build software the could store items (track the inventory), accept cash, & dispense items. Additionally, the interviewer wanted the design and code to be extensible, reusable & modular.

Vending Machine


  • Vending Machine must keep track of the inventory
  • A person should be able to insert cash into the machine & choose an item
  • The Machine should confirm the inserted cash with the price of the selected item
  • The machine must display an error in case of insufficient cash or unavailable item
  • Finally, if all the above steps succeed then the user gets the selected item


If you think of buying an item like a transaction, the machine only processes one transaction at a time. For eg: If the machine is in the process of dispensing an item, then the user can’t insert cash and try to buy another item. After the machine dispenses the item, the user can buy a new item.

In simple words, a user can buy a new item by either aborting or completing the existing transaction. To solve this we can define different states of the Vending Machine. Depending on the request, either the machine can change it’s state or stay in the same state.

Vending Machine States


  • Ready — Machine ready to accept cash
  • CashCollected — Machine has collected cash & user can now select the product or cancel the transaction
  • DispenseChange — Give back the change to the user
  • DispenseItem — Dispense the item upon successful validation of entered cash & the price of the selected item in inventory
  • TransactionCancelled — If the user cancels the transaction, return the cash given by the user
Vending Machine State Transitions

Initial Code

The class ‘VendingMachine’ exposed different methods to the user for interaction. Further, it encapsulated all the business logic to process the user commands. The code looked clumsy to me & I was sure the Interviewer would ask me a difficult question.

On taking a look, the Interviewer’s first question was ‘Does your design confirm to the S.O.L.I.D principles? ’. I quickly glanced at my code & assed the effort needed to introduce a new state. It would require the introduction of a new class with an additional switch-case block.

State-related logic is hard-coded in the VendingMachine class which means the Single-Responsibility principle is violated. Besides, a new feature requires me to modify the same class thus going against the Open-Closed principle.

I pondered over it for a while & eventually the thought of using State Design Pattern crossed my mind.

State Design Pattern

Following is a UML representation of the State design pattern:-

UML Diagram of State Design Pattern

For the Vending Machine design, we can declare a state interface which exposes the APIs — collectCash, dispenseChange, dispenseItem, cancelTransaction

All the states that we identified will implement the state interface. The Vending Machine becomes a context and stores a reference to the state.

Vending Machine class will delegate all the actions that it receives to the specific state classes. The individual states will process the command and perform a state transition by resetting the state in the context. Let’s have look at my modified code.


With the above code, a new state can be easily defined and plugged into the existing implementation with minimal change. Further, individual states are decoupled from each other. Finally, I had a vending machine codebase which was reusable, extensible, readable & clean.

Mission Accomplished


  • State-related behaviour is declared in an interface. New states can be easily introduced without the need to modify & add conditional blocks of code. Code becomes open for extension & closed for modification


  • The pattern becomes an overkill if the design only has one or two states or the state behaviour rarely changes

Note:- You might find the State design pattern similar to the Strategy design pattern which was discussed in my last post here. The only difference is that in Strategy, the concrete strategy classes are not aware of each other whereas, in State pattern, the current state should be aware of the next state.


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Animesh Gaitonde

Written by

Senior Software Engineer @Microsoft. Writes about Distributed Systems, Programming Languages & Tech Interviews

The Startup

Get smarter at building your thing. Follow to join The Startup’s +8 million monthly readers & +788K followers.

Animesh Gaitonde

Written by

Senior Software Engineer @Microsoft. Writes about Distributed Systems, Programming Languages & Tech Interviews

The Startup

Get smarter at building your thing. Follow to join The Startup’s +8 million monthly readers & +788K followers.

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