This article is part of a series How to Organically Grow your Python Project in which I cover the different steps you will go through when starting a new Python hobby project. The focus of this series lies on not knowing in advance what you want to make and thus not planning the whole project from the start.
In this article I’ll talk about how I started writing the first tests of my Python hobby project. This is a story from my point of view and does not serve as the only approach. It merely shows a path you can take to implement tests and make your application more robust. This article is also no exhaustive list of different types of tests. I will merely talk about the steps that I have organically taken and more elaborate testing can always occur later on in the project.
I decided to start with the simplest of tests, unit tests. These are fast, small tests that should be great in numbers. Each such test should check if a unit — the smallest piece of the code that can be usefully tested — behaves as desired. This behaviour should not only be tested in the expected case, but also in unexpected edge cases which might occur.
“A unit is the smallest piece of the code that can be usefully tested.”
After a bit of research, I decided to use
pytest— a framework which makes it easy to write small tests, yet scales to support complex functional testing for applications and libraries. Because I’m using conda for my Python environment, I install the
pytest package with
conda install pytest (after first activating my environment of course).
pytest will run all files of the form
*_test.py in the current directory and its subdirectories. Detailed information on how
pytest actually discovers your tests can be found in the documentation.
In order to bring some structure in the project, you should put yout tests and application code in separate directories, otherwise the root directory will become a mess. Remember, and the end of the previous article, my application structure looked something like this:
Actually, no structure at all… All files are in the root directory. And imagine adding a ton of test files. Not to speak of future development. It would become utter chaos. Insert order:
Looks much better right? However, now there is a slight problem. You will get an error when writing a unit test in
test_sample.py which, for example, checks behaviour of some class in
belts.py. This will occur while importing that class into
test_sample.py since relative imports to parent directories only work in a Python package (e.g.
from ..src.belts import YellowBelt). Thus, you’ll have to turn your application into a package 😱. No worries, this is pretty straightforward. You only need an
__init__.py file in order to make Python treat a directory as a package. In the simplest case, this file can even be empty. That’s it! Choosing a cool name for your package, the new application structure becomes:
Pro tip, pick a name which is not yet on PyPi (a Python package repository) such that you can publish it later 💪. I’ll talk about how to do this in a future article.
You still have to rename all your previous imports to use the new package instead of just the old file name. E.g.
from plates import CopperPlate becomes
from factpy.plates import CopperPlate. In your test file
test_sample.py, you can just import objects using the package name, e.g.
from factpy.belts import YellowBelt.
You can run all tests with
python -m pytest in the root directory. After you have written one test in that one file, you’ll get something like this:
Hooray, all tests have passed!
Now, I found it a bit frustrating to constantly write
python -m pytest instead of just
pytest, which is also possible according to the documentation. In order to be able to use this, you need to create a symbolic link from your Python environment to your package, mimicking the install of your own package as any other. Using conda, you need to run
conda develop . in the root directory, which puts the package in the
sys.path of your Python environment. (You can check the path’s content with
python -c "import sys; [print(p) for p in sys.path]".) Doing this using pip is slightly different, just checkout the pytest docs in case you are interested. Now, running just
pytest in the root directory will start your tests.
Now the test setup is properly configured, you can add more and more test. I started with a few simple ones in the
test_sample.py to get familiar with
pytest and how to write tests. Even though I know those tests shouldn’t be in the
test_sample.py, but rather in a more meaningfully named file, it’s okay, refactoring comes later. Have I already said that continuous refactoring is a key process?
Here’s how that file looked when I started:
from factpy.oil_products import Petroleum
from factpy.oil_proccessing import (BasicOilProccessing,
units_per_second = Petroleum.units_per_second(
BasicOilProccessing) assert units_per_second == 9def test_petrolem_production_rate_with_advanced_oil_processing():
units_per_second = Petroleum.units_per_second(
AdvancedOilProccessing) assert units_per_second == 11def test_petrolem_production_rate_with_light_oil_cracking():
units_per_second = Petroleum.units_per_second(LightOilCracking) assert units_per_second == 10
Just a few simple tests. I won’t go into detail how to properly write unit tests because you’ll gradually find this out yourself when your project grows. And there’s lots of content covering this topic spread across the internet. I will give one more basic, but useful example of unit tests, that is parametrised tests. These enable parametrization of arguments for a test function. For example, if a test should behave the exact same way for two distinct objects, it’s counterproductive to write the same test twice. Remember the DRY principle (Don’t Repeat Yourself). Here’s an example of such a parametrised test:
uranium_types = [Uranium235, Uranium238]@pytest.mark.parametrize('uranium', uranium_types)
needed = 10
crafting_time = 12 units = uranium.ingredient_units_needed_per_second(UraniumOre,
assert units == needed/crafting_time
The behaviour of the
ingredient_units_needed_per_second() function has be to be the same for my two uranium types.
When the test should behave similar for the input objects yet not exactly the same, the parametrisation can be used for a set of input objects and their corresponding expected output. Let’s say the test should check for different output values. An example of such a test:
assert HeavyOil.units_per_second(recipe) == expected
This way, I don’t need an conditional if-statement inside the test to distinguish between both recipes.
Enough said about the basics of unit tests. What happens now is that you’ll expand your application code accompanied by unit tests. This will ensure that you won’t break existing functionality and properly introduce new features. You can’t imagine how often a failing test pointed out a bug in the code which otherwise I wouldn’t had noticed. And similar to refactoring your application code, you should constantly refactor your tests as well. Renaming, restructuring, adding layers of abstraction etc. The addition of unit tests will result in a more robust application!
In the next article, I’ll talk about how to automate running your tests instead of you having to manually start them with the help of continuous integration.