# xorpd assembly riddle 0x03

Dec 5, 2018 · 3 min read

xorpd has some riddle-like pieces of assembly code here. In this post, I’ll analyze this one.

I present to you the riddle number 0x03:

sub      rdx,rax
sbb rcx,rcx
and rcx,rdx

Shall we begin our analysis?

## Line 1: sub rdx, rax

This line is pretty straightforward and self-explanatory: It substracts rax from rdx and places the result on rdx. The only thing to take into consideration here is that the op could result in a negative value.

; Case 1: Let's suppose rdx = 0x20 and rax = 0x19
sub rdx,rax ; rdx = 0x20 - 0x19 = 0x07
; Case 2: Let's suppose rdx = 0x19 and rax = 0x20
sub rdx,rax ; rdx = 0x19 - 0x20 = 0xfffffffffffffff9 = -7

## Line 2: sbb rcx, rcx

As we know from previous riddles this op performs subtraction with carry. From the previous operation, we’ll inherit a carry flag (CF) that will be 0 if rdx was greater or equal to rax, or 1 if rdx value was lower than rax. We can translate this operation to the following:

Non-assembly representation:
rcx = rcx — rcx - CF
rcx = 0 - CF
|--> if CF = 0 ==> rcx = 0 = 0x0000000000000000
|
|--> if CF = 1 ==> rcx = -1 = 0xffffffffffffffff
Notice that the initial value of rcx doesn't affect the end result
; Case 1: rdx = 0x07 and rax = 0x19, CF = 0
sbb rcx,rcx ; rcx = 0x00
; Case 2: rdx = 0xfffffffffffffff9 and rax = 0x20, CF = 1
sbb rcx,rcx ; rcx = 0xffffffffffffffff

## Line 3: and rcx, rdx

The third line is using the rcx register as a mask against rdx:

; Case 1:
; rdx = 0x07
; rax = 0x19
; rcx = 0x00
and rcx,rdx
; 0x00 & 0x07 = 0x00
; remember that 0 & x = 0
; Case 2:
; rdx = 0xfffffffffffffff9
; rax = 0x20
; rcx = 0xffffffffffffffff
and rcx,rdx
; 0xfffffffffffffff9 & 0xffffffffffffffff = 0xfffffffffffffff9;
; remember that 1 & x = x

## Line 4: add rax, rcx

Fourth and last line just adds rcx and rdx.

; Case 1:
; rdx = 0x07
; rax = 0x19
; rcx = 0x00
add rax,rcx ; rax = 0x19 + 0x00 = 0x19
; Case 2:
; rdx = 0xfffffffffffffff9
; rax = 0x20
; rcx = 0xfffffffffffffff9
add rax,rcx ; rax = 0x20 + 0xfffffffffffffff9 = 0x19

## Conclusions

So, what did we end up with?

• If rax > rdx => rax is assigned rdx’s value

In other words: Given two numbers we are returning the minimum. This can be translated into a high-level language as:

fn min(a,d) {
if(a > d){
a = d
}
return a
}

Written by

## syscall59

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