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Series of Network Fundamentals #3 (Topologies & Network Devices), to get started in Cyber Security.


What is Topology

Topology is a structure/design of a network. it describes how the devices are connected and interact within network.

Types of Topologies

1)Bus Topology

In Bus topology all the devices are connected to single cable called backbone, in both ends terminators are used because the electrical signals should not bounce back.

* It is less expensive compare to other topologies.

* If the backbone goes down the whole network goes down
* Easily the devices can eavesdrop on the other devices data/messages.

2) Ring Topology

Ring topology is introduced by IBM, where the data travels in clock wise, if you want to send a data to the device, it goes through all the devices before reaching the destination device because the devices are connected point to point.

3) Star Topology

Where all the devices connected to centralized network such as Switch or Hub, it is currently used in Lan network.

* It is more Reliable
* It is easy to add devices to the network.

* It is expensive due to lots of cable to connect the devices from centralized network.

Types of Networking Devices


It is a network communication device, which is used to enlarge the distance of the network and it regenerates and transmits the digital signals.

2) Hub

It is a centralized network communication device, which operates in a physical layer and used in star topology.

There are 2 types of Hubs

1) Passive Hub
2) Active Hub

Disadvantage of Hub

  • *Creates a collision in network
    *Broadcast all the incoming packets at one time and creates a network traffic
    *It is a dumb device.

3) Switch

Switch is a intelligent device, which establishes a centralized connection between two or more computers within a network, it doesn’t broadcast the message in the network to all the connected devices like hub, it sends the message to particular host using a mac address database.

4) Router

It is a networking device, which connects between different network segments over the internet, it works under the layer3 of OSI model, it is responsible for receiving, analyzing and forwarding the data packets.

5) Gateway

It is a device, which is used translate the different set of protocols and it works up-to layer 5 of the OSI model.

6) Modem

It modulates and demodulates signals sent through phone lines and converts analog signal to digital signal and vice-versa.

7) NIC (Network Interface Controller)

It is a computer hardware device, which is used to connect a computer to networks through wire or wireless, it works in both layer 1 and layer 2 and it also called as network adapter or LAN network.

Apart from these topologies there are other topologies, i’ll give the link below make sure to read (click here).

I hope you understood the above write-up, if any doubt or to add any content let me know in comment section.

Next article on IPv4 and IPv6 (Click Here).




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