Science and Technology

4D Printing with a Twist

This printed material responds to stimuli

Image credit: Udo Schmidt from Deutschland, CC BY-SA 2.0 <>, via Wikimedia Commons

The fourth dimension in this new set of materials is, yes, time, but in the form of reversible changes such as colour or mechanical deformation.

When first read about it I thought of hysteresis:

Hysteresis is the dependence of the state of…



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James Marinero

James Marinero

Follow me for a varied 2xTop Writer diet: true stories, humor, tech, AI, travel, geopolitics and small business tips as I write around the world on my old boat.