Jupiter’s Course: Annual Results based on Jupiter-Sun conjunction

Introduction

In the chapter 8 of Brhat Samhita, Varahamihira gave the results of the year based on Jupiter’s movement.

It is known that Jupiter moves 1 sign in one year and Sun moves through the entire zodiac in a year time. So, Sun and Jupiter conjoin once in a year’s time that initiates a new year. Here the year duration is reckoned between two successive conjunctions between Jupiter and Sun.

The results of the year is dependent on the Nakshatra in which the conjunction has happened. The year bears the same name as the names of the months in the Luni-solar calendar. 1) Chaitra, 2) Vaiśākha, 3)Jyeṣṭha, 4) Āṣāḍha, 5) Śrāvaṇa. 6) Bhāra, 7) Āśvina, 8) Kārtika, 9) Mārgaśīrṣa, 10) Pauṣa, 11) Māgha, 12) Phālguna. The luni-solar year (Saka or Vikrama Samvat) starts with the Sun-Moon conjunction in sidereal Pisces. If there are two conjunctions, then the latter one is taken as the start of the year. The names are derived from the approximate position of the Moon during the Purnima (Sun-Moon opposition) that happens in the middle of the month. For instance the Chaitra masa, the 1st month begins with the Sun-Moon conjunction at the middle of Sidereal Pisces, the Purnima will fall in beginning of Aries which is diagonally opposite to Chitra nakshatra.

Brhat Samhita 8.1. Ascertain the start in which Jupiter reappears after conjunction with the Sun. That year of Jupiter will bear the name of that particular star, and the succeeding years those of the lunar months following it in regular order.

Starting of the year & the cycle of 12 years

However, the Jovian year starts with Sun-Jupiter conjunction in Krittika nakshatra which initiates the Karttika year. Since there are 27/28 nakshatras, only 12 among them needs to be chosen for naming of the year, as one complete cycle comprises of 12 years (equivalent to 12 months of Solar or Luni-Solar calendar).

Brhat Samhita 8.2. Jupiter’s years commence from Karttika and consists of two nakshatra each beginning with Krttika and follow in regular order. However, the 5th, 10th and 11th years comprise each three nakshatra.

The nakshatras which give their names to the Jovian year are given below-

1. Krittika (Year 1)

2. Rohini

3. Mrgashira (Year 2)

4. Ardra

5. Punarvasu

6. Pushya (Year 3)

7. Ashlesha

8. Magha (Year 4)

9. Purva-Phalguni

10. Uttara-Phalguni (Year 5)

11. Hasta

12. Chitra (Year 6)

13. Svati

14. Vishakha (Year 7)

15. Anuradha

16. Jyestha (Year 8)

17. Moola

18. Purva-Ashadha (Year 9)

19. Uttara-Ashadha

20. Sravana (Year 10)

21. Dhanishtha

22. Shatabhishaj

23. Purva-Bhadra (Year 11)

24. Uttara-Bhadra

25. Revati

26. Ashvini (Year 12)

27. Bharani

Year Nomenclature

The names of the years based on the Guru-Surya conjunction in various Nakshatras are given below. Note that as per Varahamihira’s advise, the 5th, 10th and 11th year has 3 Nakshatra each.

  1. Krttika, Rohini: Karttika
  2. Mrgashira, Ardra: Margashirsha
  3. Punarvasu, Pushya: Pausha
  4. Ashlesha, Magha: Magha
  5. Purva-phalguni, Uttara-phalguni, Hasta: Phalguna
  6. Chitra, Svati: Chaitra
  7. Vishakha, Anuradha: Vaishakha
  8. Jyestha, Mula: Jyeshtha
  9. Purvashadha, Uttarashadha: Aashadha
  10. Sravana, Dhanishtha, Shatabhisaj: Dhanishtha
  11. Purvabhadra, Uttarabhadra, Revati: Bhadrapada
  12. Ashvini, Bharani: Ashvina

Results of various years

  1. Karttika Varsha: Cart-men, persons living by fire, and cattle will suffer. There will also be outbreak of diseases and clash of arms. Red and yellow flowers will grow in abundance.
  2. Margashirsha Varsha: Drought, destruction of crops as a result of pests like wild animals, rats, locusts and birds, outbreak of epidemics and kings’ hostilities even with their friends.
  3. Pausha Varsha: World will be happy and prosperous, kings will be free from enmity among themselves, the prices of food grains will go up two-fold or three-fold, and preservative work will flourish.
  4. Maagha Varsha: People would worship the manes (forefathers) with greater devotion, and all beings would enjoy happiness and contentment as well as sound health. There would be food rains and food prices for corn; the people would live greater amity and cordiality. According to Garga, the year of Magha would be notable for treaties among rulers also.
  5. Phalguna Varsha: Happiness, rainfall and crops would be sporadic and young women would be afflicted with misfortune. Kings would become cruel and aggressive and robbers would increase enormously.
  6. Chaitra Varsha: Rainfall would be scanty, food expensive, but people would enjoy happiness and kings would become kind-hearted. Pulses would thrive, but the beautiful would suffer.
  7. Vaishakha Varsha: Both the rulers and the ruled would be devoted to religious practices, happy and tree from fear (or troubles). People would be engaged in performing sacrifices and there would be abundant growth of all crops.
  8. Jyeshtha Varsha: Leaders of classes (varna), families, wealthy men and trade guilds, kings and those that are well-versed in the laws governing righteous conduct (like judges and wise elders) will be in trouble. All grains except Kangu and those of Sami class (all grain with their seeds) will suffer.
  9. Aashadha Varsha: Growth of crops in some places and drought elsewhere. The welfare of the people will be moderate, and kings will become very active and busy.
  10. Sravana Varsha: Happiness and crops abundant. Heretics and the mean-minded will be troubled along with their followers.
  11. Bhadrapada Varsha: Produce of creepers like green grams and the first crop of the year will be quite satisfactory. There will be no second crop in the year. Food grains will be in plenty only in some places, and there will be panic or danger in other parts.
  12. Ashvina Varsha: Constant rainfall and the people will enjoy health and happiness. All living beings will grow strong and there will be abundant food for all.
Brhat Samhita 8.3. In the Karttika year of Jupiter, cart-men, persons living by fire, and cattle will suffer. There will also be outbreak of diseases and clash of arms. Red and yellow flowers will grow in abundance.
Brhat Samhita 8.4. In the Margashirsha year of Jupiter there will be drought, destruction of crops as a result of pests like wild animals, rats, locusts and birds, outbreak of epidemics and kings’ hostilities even with their friends.
Brhat Samhita 8.5. In the Pausha year of Jupiter, the world will be happy and prosperous, kings will be free from enmity among themselves, the prices of food grains will go up two-fold or three-fold, and preservative work will flourish.
Brhat Samhita 8.6. In the Magha year of Jupiter people would worship the manes (the parents and elders) with greater devotion, and all beings would enjoy happiness and contentment as well as sound health. There would be food rains and food prices for corn; the people would live greater amity and cordiality. According to Garga, the year of Magha would be notable for treaties among rulers also.
Brhat Samhita 8.7. In the Phalguna year of Jupiter, happiness, rainfall and crops would be sporadic and young women would be afflicted with misfortune. Kings would become cruel and aggressive and robbers would increase enormously.
Brhat Samhita 8.8. In the Chaitra year of Jupiter, rainfall would be scanty, food expensive, but people would enjoy happiness and kings would become kind-hearted. Pulses would thrive, but the beautiful would suffer.
Brhat Samhita 8.9. In the Vaishakha year of Jupiter, both the rulers and the ruled would be devoted to religious practices, happy and tree from fear (or troubles). People would be engaged in performing sacrifices and there would be abundant growth of all crops.
Brhat Samhita 8.10. In the Jyestha year of Jupiter, leaders of classes (varna), families, wealthy men and trade guilds, kings and those that are well-versed in the laws governing righteous conduct (like judges and wise elders) will be in trouble. All grains except Kangu and those of Sami class (all grain with their seeds) will suffer.
Brhat Samhita 8.11. In the Ashadha year there will be growth of crops in some places and drought elsewhere. The welfare of the people will be moderate, and kings will become very active and busy.
Brhat Samhita 8.12. In the Sravana year of Jupiter people will be happy and crops abundant. Heretics and the mean-minded will be troubled along with their followers.
Brhat Samhita 8.13. In the Bhadrapada year of Jupiter the produce of creepers like green grams and the first crop of the year will be quite satisfactory. There will be no second crop in the year. Food grains will be in plenty only in some places, and there will be panic or danger in other parts.
Brhat Samhita 8.14. In the Asvayuja (Ashvina), there will be constant rainfall and the people will enjoy health and happiness. All living beings will grow strong and there will be abundant food for all.

Changes to the quality of results based on speed of motion of Jupiter

The declination of Guru and the Nakshatra transited by Guru should be noted. If Guru transits through north of the Nakshatra, there will be happiness. On the contrary Guru’s transit through south of the Nakshatra will cause miseries.

Similarly the speed of the transiting Guru should be observed. The speed can be checked by noting the number of Nakshatras crossed by Guru. If Guru happen to cross more than 2.5 Nakshatras in a year, it will cause destruction to the crops.

Brhat Samhita 8.15. If Jupiter moves during his transit to the north of the asterism he is in, he would bestow health, happiness and plenty, while to the south of the star, he would cause contrary results. If he moves in the middle, the effects will be of a mixed nature.
Brhat Samhita 8.16. If Jupiter moves through two asterisms in the course of a year, he will prove auspicious. If he covers 2.5 stars, the effect will be mixed; and if he moves by chance faster and covers more than that, all the crops will be destroyed.

Body of the Kalapurusha

Brhat Samhita 8.19. The starts Krttika and Rohini constitute the body (Tanu) of the year (time personified = kalapurusha); the two Ashadhas are the Navel (Nabhi); Ashlesha, the heart (Hrt) and Magha, the flower (Kusuma). If these lunar mansions are devoid of malefics, the effect will be beneficial. If the Body is afflicted by malefics through conjunction or aspect, there will be danger from fire and wind. If the Navel is afflicted, there will be threat of famine. If the flower is afflicted, destruction of roots and fruits will ensure. Lastly, if the heart is afflicted, undoubtedly there will be destruction of crops.

Reference

  • Bhatt, M. Ramakrishna. Varahamihira’s Brhat Samhita. 1st ed. Delhi, India: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited., 2010
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