A graha acquires strength in various ways, such as being placed in a certain Rasi, Bhava, Varga, Day or Night time, Shukla or Krsna paksha, being Vakri or victorious in Graha Yuddha etc. Shadbala is a mathematical model to quantify the strength attained from 6 different sources. To understand real impact of various occupation, aspects and yogas in a horoscope, one should have good estimate of the strength of the grahas in a horoscope. Without that, one’s analysis could be misleading.
BPHS 27.37–38. O Brahmin, the various sources of strengths should be gathered together and effects declared. Whatever Yogas, or effects have been stated with respect to a Bhava, will come to pass through the strongest Graha.
Saravali 4.34. To assess the auspicious and inauspicious effects of a Graha, its directional, positional, temporal and motional strengths are important, for without these it is considered to be weak.
There are 6 sources of strength of grahas which encompasses all the various sources. Detailed assessment of the strength have been given in Brhat Parashari Hora Shastras with extensive mathematical computation. It is better to develop a mental model to quickly assess the strength of the grahas, instead of going into detailed computation, unless one has a lot of time to spare. This is not to discourage computation, but to understand the sources of strength so that one can look into the relevant factors to readily assess them.
The 6 sources of strengths are:
- Sthanabala: The strengths arising out of various kinds of placements in Rasi and Vargas are classified under this. These comprises of 5 sub-components viz. (1) Uccha, (2) Saptavargaja, (3) Ojayugma, (4) Kendradi, (5) Drekkana.
- Dikbala: The strength arising out of placement in specific Kendras depending on the Tattva governing the grahas and teh Kendras.
- Kalabala: The strength arising out of the time when the birth or an event happened. These comprises of 6 sub-components viz.(1) Paksha, (2) Abdamasadinahora, (3) Ayana, (4) Natonnata, (5) Tribhaga, (6) Yuddha.
- Chestabala: The strength arising out of movement, fast or slow, forward or reverse direction.
- Naisargika: The strength arising out of natural strength and weakness of the grahas.
- Drgbala: The strength arising out of aspects of shubha and papa grahas. The shubha grahas are the sources of strength while the papa-grahas are the sources of weakness.
According to Mantresvara, the six sources of strength are similar to Maharishi Parashara’s views, however he suggested some variations. He separated Ucchabala from the Sthanabala and removed Drgbala. In my humble opinion Mantresvara’s opinion is misleading, as Ucchabala is derived from the occupation of a Graha in various Rāśis reckoned from the Uccha sphuta. Hence, there is no reason why it should not be included in the Sthanabala. Also, Drgbala contributes 1 rupa of strength which is missing in Mantresvara’s computation, which is not appropriate.
Phaladeepika 4.1: The strength of a Graha is said to be sixfold and they are in the following order: (1) Kalaja, (2) Cheshta, (3) Ucchaja (4) Dik, (5) Ayana and (6) Sthana. In the night-time, Mangal, Chandra & Shukra are strong. Budha is strong at all times. The rest are strong during the day. In Shukla Paksha the Naisargika Shubha Grahas are strong, and in Krsna Paksha, the Naisargika Krura Grahas are strong. When a Graha lords the Year, Month, Day or Hora, they get ¼, ½, ¾ and 1 Rupas respectively.
Bala 1. The Sthana Bala (Positional Strength)
The Sthanabala is based on the “placement” of Grahas in certain (1) Rāśi, (2) Bhava, (3) Drekkana and (4) Vargas. This represents the “place” factor. It comprises of 5 sub-components (1) Ucchabla, (2) Saptavargaja Bala, (3) Ojayugma Bala, (4) Kendradi Bala, (5) Drekkana Bala.
1.1. Uccha bala: This indicates how far a Graha is situated from its Uccha-sthana-sphuta or the deepest exaltation point. Closer a Graha to its exaltation point, stronger it is as per UcchaBala. When a Graha occupies it Paramoccha sphuta, it gets 1 rupa and 0 rupa when it is in Paramaneecha Sphuta
BPHS 27.1–1½. Uccha Bala: Deduct from the longitude of the Graha its (deep) debilitation point. If the sum is less than 6 Rāśis, consider it, as it is; if it exceeds 6 Rāśis, deduct the same from 12 Rāśis. The sum so got be converted into degrees etc. and divided by 3, which is the Graha’s Uccha Bala in Virupas.
1.2 Saptavargaja bala: This indicates the strength of a Graha in 7 (sapta) divisions (varga) viz., Rāśi, Hora, Dreshkana, Saptāńśa, Navāńśa, Dvadashāńśa and Trimshāńśa. The details of this strength is given in following section.
1.3. Ojayugma bala: Oja means odd or male, while yuma means even or female. Ojayugma bala is derived from placement alignment of male and female grahas with the male and female Rāśis. Female Grahas in female Rāśis and male Grahas in male Rāśis attain this strength. This is to be judged in both Rāśi and Navāńśa charts. Here, Shukra & Chandra are considered female and rest are considered male.
In each of Rāśi and Navāńśa charts a Graha gets 15 Virupa, so maximum strength possible is 30 Virupa.
BPHS 27.4½. Ojhayugma Rāśiāńś Bala. Each of Śukra and Chandra in even Rāśis and others in odd Rāśis acquire a quarter of Rupa. These are applicable to such Navāńśas also.
1.4. Kendradi: The 1–4–7–10 are called Kendra (Quadrant), 2–5–8–11 are called Panaphara (Succedent) and 12–3–6–9 are called the Apoklima (Precedent Houses). Grahas in Kendra are the strongest and in Apoklima are the weakest. Those placed in Panaphara have middling strength. Again within the Kendras, the position in certain Kendras are considered stronger than others. Grahas in Kendras are strongest (60 virupas) and in Apoklima (15 virupas) are weakest. Those placed in Panaphara (30 virupas) have middling strength.
BPHS 27.5. Kendradi Bala. A Graha in a Kendra gets full strength, while one in Panaphara Bhava gets half and the one in Apoklima Bhava gets a quarter, as Kendradi Bal.
Phaladeepika 4.8: The strength of the grahas occupying the 4 Kendras (1st, 4th, 7th and 10th) has been distinguished by the astrologers in the following manner; It is ¼th in the 4th house; ½ in the 10th, ¾ in the 7th and full in the 1st or Lagna, thus increasing it by ¼ in each stage.
Note: The strength of grahas in various Kendras are different from the lords of various Kendras. Form a Kendra lordship standpoint, 10th lord is considered to be strongest while Lagnesha is considered the weakest. Here, the strength decreases from 10th to the Lagna in the order of 10, 7, 4 and 1.
1.5 Drekkana: Male Grahas (Surya, Mangal and Guru) get full strength in 1st Drekkana. Female Grahas (Chandra & Shukra) get full strength in 2nd Drekkana. Eunuch Grahas (Shani and Budha) gets full strength in the 3rd Drekkana of a Rāśi. According to Parashara, the 1st Drekkana of a Rāśi falls in the sign itself. The 2nd Drekkana falls in the 5th from it while the 3rd Drekkana falls in the 9th from it. Saravali gives another view on the Drekkana Bala. Maximum possible Drekkana Bala is 15 virupas while minimum is Zero.
BPHS 27.6. Drekkana Bala. Male, female and eunuch Grahas, respectively, get a quarter Rupa of strength according to placement of a Graha in the first, second and third Drekkana.
Saravali 4.38: Male Grahas are strong in the first Drekkana, female Grahas in the third Drekkana and eunuch Grahas in the second Drekkana of a Rāśi. Grahas are strong, only when they are away from Surya, as per Yavanas.
(1.1) Estimation of Uccha Bala
When a Graha is placed in its Highest exaltation, it gets 60 virupas and in its Deepest debility, it gets 0 virupas. At other places, the strength is proportionally reduced. To compute this, one need to determine the longitudinal difference between the planet position and the deepest debility point and divide that by 3. The value arrived is the Ucchabala of the Graha in Virupas.
If a Graha is placed in its deepest exaltation point, then the difference will be 180, when divided by 3, it gets 60 Virupas.
Rough estimation: Count the number of signs from the debility sign and subtract by 1, where the Graha is placed. Add 10 virupas for each sign elapsed. For instance, for Surya, Tula is its Neecha Rasi. If Surya is placed in Simha, then counting from Simha to Tula, we arrive at 3 signs. Subtracting 1, we get 2. Multiplying 10 with 2, we get 20 virupas as the approximate Ucchabala of Surya.
(1.2a.) Special consideration of Saptavargaja Bala
Maharishi Parashara in BPHS (27.2–4) states that when a Graha is occupies its Mulatrikona Rāśi, it gets 45 Virupas, in its Svastha Rāśi (Swakshetra) it gets 30 Virupas, in its Great Pramudita Rāśi (Mitra Kshetra) it gets 22.5 Virupas, in a Shanta Rāśi (Mitrakshetra) it gets 15 Virupas, in its Dina Rāśi (Samakshetra) it gets 7.5 Virupas, in its Duhkhita Rāśi (Shatru Kshetra) it gets 3.75 Virupas and in its Khala Rāśi (Ati Shatru Kshetra) it gets 1.875 Virupas.
He gives the definition of the various Avasthas in another place (45.8–10) If a Graha is in its Uccha Rāśi, it is in Dipta Avastha, if in its Svakshetra, it is in Svastha, if in a Ati Mitra’s Rāśi, it is in Pramudita, if in a Mitrakshetra, it is in Shanta, if in a Samakshetra, it is in Dina, if the Graha is yuti with a malefic, it is in Vikala, if is in a Shatrukshetra, it is in Duhkhita, if in a Ati-Shatrukshetra, it is in Khala and, if the Graha is being eclipsed by Surya, it is in Kopa. Depending on such a state of the Graha, the Bhava, occupied by it will obtain corresponding effects.
BPHS 27.2–4. Saptavargaja Bala. If a Graha is in its Mooltrikona Rāśi, it gets 45 Virupas, in Svastha Rāśi 30 Virupas, in Pramudita Rāśi 20 Virupas, in Shanta Rāśi 15 Virupas, in Din Rāśi 10 Virupas, in Duhkhita Rāśi 4 Virupas and in Khala Rāśi 2 Virupas. Similarly these values occur for the other 6 divisional occupations, viz. Hora, Dreshkana, Saptāńśa, Navāńśa, Dvadashāńśa and Trimshāńśa. When all these are added together the Graha’s Sapta Vargaja Bala emerges.
Phaladeepika 4.3: The strength accruing to a Graha in the six Vargas (viz., Rāśi, Hora, Drekkana, Navamsa, Dvadasamsa and Trimasamsa) on a consideration of its being posited in its exaltation, its own and its friendly signs etc., is termed its positional strength. That arising from its being in Kendra Phanapara and Apoklima will be one 1, ½ and ¼ Rupa respectively. The eunuch Grahas are strong in the middle, the male ones at the initial and the female ones at the concluding portions of a Rāśi. Shani, Mangal, Budha, Guru, Shukra, Chandra and Surya are in their order increasing in their natural strength.
(1.2b.) Simplification of Saptavargaja bala
Sri Mantresvara in verse 4.10 suggested, why to make the computation so complex when the temporal friendship and enmity are impermanent and change with time. He suggested, why not use the permanent friendship and enmity and simplify the entire computation using the natural dignity. In this regard Saravali 4.25 and Phaladeepika 4.7 suggests that in the matter of bestowing auspicious results a graha is capable of giving 1 rupa (60 virupa) of auspicious results in Ucchakshetra, ¾ rupa (45 virupa) in Mulatrikona Rāśi, ½ rupa (30 virupa) in Svakshetra, and ¼ rupa (15 virupa) in Mitrakshetra. This means that when a graha is exalted in all the 7 Vargas, it can contribute to 7 rupas or 420 virupas, which can in fact offset the deficiency due to all other sources of strength, and make the graha give very auspicious results.
Phaladeepika 4.5. All Grahas are strong when they are in exaltation. Chandra is strong and auspicious when she has her full Paksha bala and Surya when he has his full Dig-bala. The other five non-luminous Grahas are strong when they are retrograde. Rahu in Karka, Vrisha, Mesha, Kumbha and Vrischika and Ketu in Meena, Kanya, Vrisha and the later half of Dhanus, in Parivesha and Indrachapa are strong, if there be a conjunction of Chandra and Surya and the time be night.
Phaladeepika 4.7. A Graha gets one full Rupa as positional strength when he is in his exaltation Rāśi. The strength is ¾ when he is posited in his Moolatrikona Rāśi. It is ½ when the Graha occupies his own Rāśi. When the Graha is in. a friendly house, his bala is only ¼. In an inimical house, he gets only very little. The strength is nil when he is in his depression sign or eclipsed by Surya’s rays.
Phaladeepika 4.10. Natural enmity or friendship between two Grahas is more fully effective than and preferable to their corresponding temporal ones as the latter is only a variable quantity and not a permanent one.
Estimation of the Saptavargaja Bala:This strength is dependent on the Placement of a Graha in one of the 6 states defined by the compound friendship and enmity (Panchadha maitri) and its own sign. There is a 7th state, which is placement in its Mulatrikona Rasi is only applicable in the Rasi chart (D1).
The SaptaVargas consists of divisions D1, D2, D3, D7, D9, D12, D30.
First we need to determine the Composite Friendship of the Planet under consideration with other Planets from their Placement in the Rasi chart. Then we check whether the planet it placed in its friend’s or enemy’s sign in various Vargas. In this computation, there is no concept of Mulatrikona in the Varga chart. Also, exaltation sign has utility in any Varga, as only thing to look for is the relationship of the Graha with other Grahas as per the 5 point composite friendship.
The maximum strength possible for any Graha to attain here is 45 (in Rasi) + 30 (in other vargas) * 6 = 45 + 180 = 225 virupas. The minimum possible is 1.875 * 7 = 13.13
(1.2c.) The Panchadha Sambandha (5 fold relationship) Rules
BPHS 3.55. Naisargika Sambandha. Note the Rāśis, which are the 2nd, 4th, 5th, 8th, 9th and 12th from the Mulatrikona of a Graha. The Graha is friendly towards the Grahas ruling such Rāśis, and also to the Lord of its exaltation Rāśi. The Graha is inimical towards the lords other than these. If the Graha becomes friend as well enemy towards someone, then it becomes neutral to that Graha.
BPHS 3.56. Tatkalika Relationships. The Grahas, posited in the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 10th, 11th, or the 12th from another, become mutual friend. There is enmity otherwise.
BPHS 3.57–58. Panchadha Sambandha. Should two Grahas be both naturally and temporarily friendly, they become Adhimitra (extremely friendly). Friendship on one count and neutrality on another count make them Mitra (friendly). Enmity on one count combined with friendship on the other turns into Sama (neutral). Enmity and neutral-ship cause only Shatru (enmity). Should there be enmity in both manners, Adhishatru (extreme enmity) is obtained. The Jyotishi should consider these and declare horoscopic effects accordingly.
Bala 2. The Dikbala (Directional Strength)
- The Dikbala is based on the placement of Grahas in one of the four Kendras representing 4 directions (Dik).
- Lagna represents the East and Guru, Budha attains Dikbala here. 7th house represents the West and Shani attains Dikbala here. 10th house represents the South, where Surya and Mangal attains dikbala here. 4th house represents the north and Chandra-Shukra attain Dikbala here.
- The tattva governing the Lagna are Akasha and Prthvi, that governing 4th house is Jala, that governing 7H is Vayu and that governing 10th house is Agni. When grahas occupy their Dikbala, the tattva governing the graha attains great strength and prominence and the native is blessed by the Tattva devata.
- When A Graha is placed in the Dik (Direction) where they belong to, the attain 60 Virupa of strength. In the opposite sign, they attain 0 Virupa of strength. In other Bhavas, their strength is proportionally allocated based on their placement with regards to the Bhava where they attain Dikbala.
BPHS 27.7–7½. Dikbala. Deduct Bandhu Bhava (Nadir) from the longitudes of Sūrya and Mangal, Yuvati Bhava from that of Guru and Budha, Karma Bhava from that of Śukra and Chandra and lastly Lagna from that of Śani. If the sum is above 180 degrees, deduct the sum from 360. The sum arrived in either way be divided by 3, which will be Dikbala of the Graha.
Bala 3. The Kalabala (Time Strength)
The Kalabala is based on the period of time such as Day, night, Year, Month, Hour, Fortnight etc. in which a Graha becomes stronger. This represents the strength arising out of Time Factor. It consists of 5 sub-component (1) Natonnata Bala, (2) Tribhaga Bala, (3) Paksha Bala, (4) Hora Vara Masa Abda Bala, and (5) Ayana Bala.
3.1. Natonnata Bala: Some Grahas are strong during daytime while some are strong at night time. This strength is based on this concept. Sūrya, Guru and Śukra gets this strength highest near to the Noon time. On the other hand Chandra, Mangal and Śani gets strength highest near to the Midnight time. Budha is strong throughout the day. At other times, their strength is proportionally reduced. The Maximum attainable strength here is 60 virupa which is during the peak time of the Graha. Budha has always 60 virupa of strength.
BPHS 27.8–9. Nathonnata Bala. Find out the difference between midnight and the apparent birth time, which is called Unnata. Deduct Unnata from 30 Ghatis to obtain Nata. Double the Nata in Ghatis, which will indicate identical Nata Bala for Candr, Mangal and Śani. Deduct the Nata from 60 to know the Unnata Bala of Sūrya, Guru and Śukr. Budh, irrespective of day and night, gets full Nathonnata Bal.
Saravali 4.36: Surya, Guru and Shukra acquire strength during day-time, while Shani, Chandra and Mangal become strong during night-time. Budha acquires vigour at all times.
3.2. Tribhaga Bala: When the Day and Night each are divided by 3, the 6 grahas (excluding Guru) attains this strength in various portions of the Day. (a) Budha, Sūrya and Śani are strong in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd portion of the day-time. (b) Similarly Chandra, Śukra and Mangal get full strength in the 1st, 2nd and the 3rd portions of the night-time. (c) Guru is strong through all the portions. The highest achievable bala is 60 when the Graha is placed in their own portion (Bhaga). Guru always gets 60 virupas as Tribhaga Bala.
BPHS 27.12. One Rupa is obtained by Budha in the first 1/3 part of day time, by Sūrya in the second 1/3 part of the day and by Śani in the last 1/3 part of the day. Similarly Chandra, Śukra and Mangal get full Bala in the first, second and last 1/3 parts of the night. Guru gets this Bala at all times.
Saravali 4.39: Chandra, Shukra and Mangal get this strength in the first, second and third parts of the night, respectively. This is similarly enjoyed by Budha, Surya and Shani in day-time, while Guru has it always, irrespective of day, or night.
3.3. Paksha Bala: Some Grahas are strong during Shukla Paksha while others are stronger during Krsna Pasha. (a) The Shubha Grahas Chandra, Budha, and Guru and Śukra gets highest on this strength during Purnima. (c) The Krura Graha gets highest on this strength during during Amavashya. At other times, this strength is proportionally reduced. Shubha Grahas get 60 virupa during Purnima and 0 during Amavashya. The reverse is true for Papa Grahas. The Sum-total of the Shubha and Papa Graha Paksha Bala is always 60 virupas.
BPHS 27.10–11. Deduct from Chandra’s longitude that of Sūrya. If the sum exceeds 6 Rāśis, deduct the same from 12. The product so obtained be converted into degrees etc. and divided by 3, which will indicate the Paksha Bala of each of the benefic Grahas. The Paksha Bala of benefic should be deducted from 60, which will go to each malefic, as Paksha Bal.
Saravali 4.36: Malefics get strength in Dark Half, while benefics become strong in Bright Half.
3.4. Varsh-Maas-Dina-Hora Bala: Various segments of time are governed by various grahas. It starts with the lord of the year, which is further sub-divided into Month, Day and Hour. each of these sub-divisions are governed by a Graha, and each having strength that is higher in the order of Year, Month, Day and Hour. There are four component of this strength each of them is 25% stronger than the previous one. The components are Hora (Graha hour), Vara (Vedic weekday), Masa (Solar month) and Abda (Solar year). The Maximum strength that can be gained here is 60 + 45 + 30 + 15 = 150 virupas. It is possible, only when a Graha simultaneously rules all the 4 period.
BPHS 27.13. 15, 30, 45 and 60 Virupas are in order given to Varsh Lord, Maas Lord, Dina Lord and Hora Lord. Naisargika Bala has already been explained.
Saravali 4.36: The Hora Bala goes to Hora Lord, Masa Bala (Masa — month) to the Lord of the month, Dina Bala to the Lord of the week-day of birth and Abda (year) Bala is credited to the Lord of the year of birth.
Hora Lord is the Graha ruling the hour. It is strongest among all. Vara Lord is the Hora Lord at the moment of Suryarise. It is 2nd in strength. Masa Lord is the Hora lord at the moment of Transit of Surya into a zodiac sign. Month = duration of Surya’s Transit through one Zodiac sign i.e., between two Sankrantis. Abda Lord is the Hora lord at the moment of Transit of Surya into Aries.
Definition of a Year: The definition of a year is based on duration of 4,32,000 years in one Maha-yuga. Although some believe that the year definition should be based on Soli-Lunar calendar as Chaitra Shukla Pratipada. However, in my opinion, since the original definition of time is based on Yuga, we should take the definition of year and month based on the same principle i.e., Solar movement in the sidereal zodiac. A different definition of the year is given by Varahamihira which is given later.
3.5. AyanaBala: This Strength depends on the Uttarayana or Dakshinayana movement of Grahas. Jataka Parijata Ch 2 mentions that Chandra and Shani are strong in Dakshinayana (southern movement) and Surya and Guru are strong in Uttarayana (northern movement). However, according to BPHS Ch 27, Chandra and Shani are strong in southern Kranti (declination), while when Sūrya, Mangal, Guru and Shukra are strong in northern Kranti. As far as Budha is concerned, is strong in both Uttarayana and Dakshinayana.
The way to compute Ayana Bala is to convert the Graha longitude into tropical longitude (sayana graha sphuta). The start of Cancer represent the highest northern declination while that of Capricorn represent the lowest southern declination.
BPHS 27.15–17. 45, 33 and 12 are the Khandas for calculating Ayan Bala. Add Ayanāńśa to the Graha and find out the Bhuja (distance from the nearest equinox). Add the figure, corresponding to the Rāśi (of the Bhuja) to the Bhuja. The degrees etc. of the Bhuja should be multiplied by the figure, corresponding to the highest of the left out Khandas and divided by 30. Add the resultant product to the sum, obtained earlier. Convert this to Rāśi, degrees, minutes and seconds. If Chandra and Śani are in Tula, or ahead, add to this 3 Rāśis and, if in Mesh to Kanya, reduce from this 3 Rāśis. Similarly it is reverse for Sūrya, Mangal, Śukra and Guru. For Budha 3 Rāśis are always additive. The resultant sum in Rāśi, degrees and minutes be divided by 3 to get the Ayana Bala in Rupas.
R. Santhanam. Ayana Bala can be found out on the following simple formula: Ayan Bala = 60(23°27’ + Kranti)/(46°54’) = (23°27’± Kranti)*1.2793. Kranti = Declination.
3.Corr. Yuddha Bala Correction
Two Grahas are supposed to be in Grahaary War when distance between Two Grahas is less than 1 deg. The one in the North is victorious. Only the Tara Graha (Mangal, Budha, Guru, Shukra and Shani) get into war. Grahas conjoining Surya get into Combustion and those conjoining Chandra get into Samagama.
The quantum of Yuddha Bala = Difference in the total of Tri-balas (Sthana, Dik, Kala) / Difference of disc circumference.
According to Graha & Bhava Balas by Dr BV Raman, the disc circumference are (1) Kuja: 9.4”, (2) Budha: 6.6”, (3) Guru: 190.4”, (4) Shukra: 16.6”, (5) Shani: 158”.
The YuddhaBala has to be deducted from the Kalabala of the defeated Graha and added to that of the Victor. The resultant Kalabala is the final Kalabala used for all purposes. In computation of Kalabala for the use of Yddhabala, the balas used are (1) Natonnata, (2) Paksha, (3) Tribhaga and (4) Abda-Masa-Vara-Hora bala are included. But Ayana Bala is excluded.
BPHS 27.20. Graha Yuddha. Should there be a war between the Tara Grahas (Mangal to Shani), the difference between the Shadbalas of the two should be added to the victor’s Shadbala and deducted from the Shad Bala of the vanquished.
Two planets are supposed to be in Planetary War when distance between Two Grahas is less than 1 deg. The one in the North is victorious. Only the Tara Graha (Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, Venus and Saturn) get into war. Planets conjoining Surya get into Combustion and those conjoining Chandra get into Samagama.
The quantum of Yuddha Bala = Difference in the total of Tri-balas (Sthana, Dik, Kala) / Difference of disc circumference.
(3.5.) Special notes on Ayana Bala
The Ayana Bala depends on the Declination (Kranti) of the Graha. When the Graha move up in Declination, it is called Uttarayana and on the Reverse is called Dakshinayana. The Ayana Bala at Zero Declination is 30.
For Chandra and Shani, at lowest Declination, Ayana Bala becomes 60 and in highest Declination, it becomes Zero. This is reverse for all other Grahas viz., Shukra, Surya, Mangal and Guru.
Ayana Bala = (240 + Kranti)/ 48 * 60
The maximum declination is 23 deg 27 min, which is dependent on the tilt of the Earth on its axis, and this is rounded to 24 by Vedic savants for ease of computation.
Steps for determining Ayana Bala (1/3)
- Sayana Longitude: Convert Nirayana to Sayana Longitude by adding Ayanamsa.
- Bhuja: Bhuja is the distance from the nearest Equinoctial point. The Equinoxial points are at 0 deg (Aries) and 180 deg (Libra).The maximum attainable Bhuja is 90 deg.
- Portion of Declination: The highest declination of 24 deg (approx. of 23 deg 27 min) is divided into 6 portions, each measuring 15 degrees of Bhuja. The Bhuja should be divided by 15 to determine the portion in which the Bhuja falls. Here the Quotient represents the portion of 15 degrees and the Reminder represents the extent of progress of the Graha within the Portion. So Portion = Quotient, Deg Elapsed = Remainder.
- Declination Associated with the Portion: Each portion of 15 degrees is associated with a Declination value. They are 1st portion: 362 min, 2nd portion: 341 min, 3rd portion: 299 min, 4th portion: 236 min, fifth portion: 150 min, Sixth portion: 52 min. When the declinations allocated to various portions are added up, we arrive at 1440 min which equals to 24 deg of maximum declination.
- Declination within the Portion: The Maximum declination within a portion is given before. So declination within a portion can be ascertained by Declination with the portion (in minutes) = (Portion.Declination * Elapsed) / 15. See below for Portion.Declination.
- Total Declination: The total declination is the sum of Declination arrived in 15 deg portion of the Bhuja and the total declination of previous portion.
- North Vs. South Declination: If the Sayana longitude is below 180 degree, it is Northern declination. On the other hand, if the longitude is more than 180 degree, it is Southern declination.
- Determine the Ayana Bala: According to Keshava Daivagna, the Ayana Bala can be found using the following formula Ayana Bala = (24 deg +/- Declination value) / 48 * 60. Important Note: Whether the Declination value is added or Subtracted (+/-) in the formula depends on the Graha and their south or north declination. Moon and Saturn are strong in Southern declination, hence their declination value is added when they are in south (Libra to Pisces in Sayana chakra). If they are in the Northern declination (Aries to Virgo), their declination value is subtracted. This is reverse for the remaining Graha. Mercury’s declination is always added irrespective of whether it is in South or North.
Portion.Declination = 362 (1st), 341 (2nd), 299 (3rd), 236 (4th), 150 (5th), 52 (6th). The Figures inside the bracket represent the portion while those outside are the max. declination in that portion.
Bala 4. The Chesta Bala (Motional Strength)
- Chesta means effort. This source of strength means how much effort a Graha is making. The effort is less when the Graha is moving steadily, and highest when it is Retrograde.
- Retrogression can be equated with moving against the river current, which is extremely tough.
- Movement of Surya and Chandra are always steady, and they never have retrogression or acceleration, hence their Chestabala equates to their Ayana Bala and Paksha Bala respectively.
- For the Tara Grahas (Mangal to Shani), their Chestabala is computed based on their speed and direction of their motion.
- The Chesta Bala can be known from the speed of the Grahas. The computation involve determining the mean position and the true position and identifying the difference to determine the speed. The computation is complex, hence an approximate method is suggested. The approximation introduces only a small error in Chestabala as its maximum contribution is only 60 virupas. The speed of a Graha can be known from any standard ephemeris of a astrological software and compared with the average speed.
- The strengths in virupas, allotted due to such 8 motions are 60 (Vakra), 30 (Anuvakra), 15 (Vikala), 30 (Manda), 15 (Mandatara), 7.5
(Sama), 45 (Chara) and 30 (Atichara).
- The 8 different kinds of motions and their strength are:
- Vakra: Retrogression and moving in reverse gear: 100% strength
- Anuvakra: Entering the previous Rāśi in retrograde motion i.e., moving Rāśi in reverse gear: 60% strength
- Vikala: Devoid of motion i.e., standstill: 15%
- Manda: Slowing down and decelerating, in direct motion: 30%
- Mandatara: Decelerating even more and coming to near standstill 15%
- Sama: Somewhat accelerating: 7.5%
- Chara: Moving in direct motion with average speed: 45%
- Atichara: Moving much faster than the average speech: 30%
BPHS 27.21–23. 8 kinds of motions. Eight kinds of motions are attributed to Grahas. These are Vakra (retrogression), Anuvakra (entering the previous Rāśi in retrograde motion), Vikala (devoid of motion), Manda (somewhat slower motion than usual), Mandatara (slower than the previous), Sama (somewhat increasing in motion), Chara (faster than Sama) and Atichara (entering next Rāśi in accelerated motion). The strengths, allotted due to such 8 motions are 60, 30, 15, 30, 15, 7.5, 45 and 30.
BPHS 27.24–25. Chest Bala of Mangal to Shani. Add together the mean and true longitudes of a Graha and divide the one by two. Reduce this sum from the Seeghrocha (or apogee) of the Graha. The resultant product will indicate the Cheshta Kendra (or Seeghra Kendra) of the Graha from 12 Rāśis. The Rāśi, degrees and minutes so arrived should be converted into degrees, minutes etc. and divided by 3, which will denote the motional strength of the Graha. Thus there are six sources of strength, called Sthana Bala, Dig Bala, Kaal Bala, Drik Bala, Cheshta Bala and Naisargika Bal.
BPHS 27.18. Chesta Bala for Sūrya and Chandra. Sūrya’s Cheshta Bala will correspond to his Ayana Bala. Chandra’s Paksha Bala will itself be her Cheshta Bala.
Phaladeepika 4.2: Chandra gets Cheshta-bata when she is full. Surya gets it when he is in his northern course; the other Grahas, when in their retrograde motion. In Grahaary war, those that are posited in the north and who have got brilliant rays should be considered as victorious. Grahas have their full Uchchabala when in their highest exaltation. As regards directional strength, Surya and Mangal are strong in the 10th; Shukra and Chandra in the 4th; Budha and Guru in the 1st and Shani in the 7th. Budha, Shani and Chandra have their Ayanabala in their southerly course. The rest have the same in their northern.
Phaladeepika 4.4: a Graha is said to possess strength when he is retrograde or when his rays are full and brilliant, though posited in a depression or inimical Rāśi or Amsa. Like Chandra, a Graha though occupying an exaltation, friendly or his own Rāśi or Amsa becomes weak, should his rays be overpowered or eclipsed.
Bala 5. The NaisargikaBala (Natural Strength)
- The natural strength of Grahas is called Naisargika Bala. The Grahas are progressively stronger in the order of Shani, Mangal, Budha, Guru, Śukra, Chandra and Sūrya, respectively.
- When two Grahas influence each other by conjunction or mutual aspect, the one who is stronger in this order has higher ability to influence the other and give results predominantly of its own. Since Surya is the strongest, any Graha conjoining with Surya becomes Combust, but Surya does not become weaker.
BPHS 27.14. Divide one Rupa by 7 and multiply the resultant product by 1 to 7 separately, which will indicate the Naisargika Bala, due to Śani, Mangal, Budha, Guru, Śukra, Chandra and Sūrya, respectively.
Saravali 4.40: Shani, Mangal, Budha, Guru, Shukra, Chandra and Surya are stronger than the other in the ascending order. Should there be similarity in other strengths, then the one with greater natural strength prevails.
The naisargika Bala of Grahas in virupas are (1) Guru: 34, (2) Budha: 25.7, (3) Surya: 60, (4) Chandra: 51.4, (5) Shukra: 42.8, (6) Mangal: 17, (7) Shani: 8.6
Bala 6. The Drgbala (Aspect Strength)
- Drg means aspect.This strength is acquired by the virtue of being aspected by Natural Benefic or Natural Malefics.
- The Aspect of Natural Benefics add to the strength, while that of Natural Malefics reduces the strength.
- The strength of aspect depends on the longitudinal difference between the aspecting Graha and the aspected Graha.
BPHS 27.19. Reduce one fourth of the Drishti Pinda, if a Grah receives malefic Drishtis and add a fourth, if it receives a Drishti from a benefic. Super add the entire Drishti of Budha and Guru to get the net strength of a Grah.
Phaladeepika 4.9: The aspect from the 7th house is the only one that should be declared as most effective in all cases; not so, the rest. But there are others who opine that the special aspect (of Shani, Guru and Mangal) is in no way less efficacious in producing full effect in all Yogas and the like.
When a Natural Benefic (Jupiter, Venus, Waxing Moon and Benefic Mercury) aspects a Graha, it adds to their strength. On the other hand, when Natural malefic (Saturn, Mars, Sun, waning Moon and Malefic Mercury) aspects a Graha, it reduced their strength. The computation of this strength is time-consuming, hence an approximation has been suggested. This will introduce some insignificant error, which can be ignored.
Summary of all the Other Balas (besides the Stanabala)
Maximum attainable strength
- The maximum attainable Sthanabala is 390 virupas. This comprises of Uccha: 30 virupas, Saptavargaja: 225 virupas, Ojayugma: 30 virupas, Kendradi: 60 virupas, Drekkana: 15 virupas. This indicates that when a graha attains Saptavargaja bala, the other balas become insignificant.
- The maximum attainable Kalabala is 390 virupas. Each of Natonnata, Paksha, Tribhaga and Ayana contribute to 60 virupas each. The Horavaramasaabda bala is strongest among them and contributes to 150 virupas, however it is hardly attainable. The most important component of Horavaramasaabda bala is Hora bala, which a graha attains when it rules the Hora of birth or event. The Hora bala contributes 60 virupas to the 150 virupas of Horavaramasaabda bala.
- The maximum attaining strength of all other sources are 240 virupas. This is comprised of Dik, Chesta, Naisargika and Drg bala, each of which contribute a maximum of 60 virupas.
- Assessment of Strength: The Stanabala and Kalabala individually contribute to strength that is more that combined strength of Dik, Chesta, Naisargika and Drg. The highest strength attainable under Sthanabala and Kalabala is the same i.e., 390 virupas. The combined strength of the other four balas are 240 virupas.
- In a horoscope, if the strength of “a Graha” is low due to its position in Bad Avastha, such as sign of Debility, sign of enemy or great enemy, in Apoklima etc., it can be compensated by Birth in a auspicious time when the Graha under consideration is strong.
- In general, it is excellent if the Lagnesha (LL), Mantresha (5L) and Dharmesha (9L) are endowed with Great strength either through Stanabala or Kalabala, if not all the other strengths.
- The maximum attainable shadbala is 1020 virupas or 17 rupas, which can be attained by Surya, who is highest in naisargika bala. However, it is not possible to attain it in real life cases. For this reason, Maharishi Parashara mentioned the minimum threshold above which a Graha should be considered strong.
BPHS 27.34–36: Minimum Prescribed Strength: Guru, Budha and Sūrya are strong, if each of their Sthanabala, Dikbala, Kalabala, Cheshtabala and Ayanabala are, respectively, 165, 35, 50, 112 and 30 Virupas. The same required for Chandra and Śukra are 133, 50, 30, 100 and 40. For Mangal and Shani these are 96, 30, 40, 67 and 20.
BPHS 27.32–33: Minimum Shadbala Requirement: 390, 360, 300, 420, 390, 330 and 300 Virupas are the Shadbala Pindas, needed for Sūrya etc. to be considered strong. If the strength exceeds the above-mentioned values, the Graha is deemed to be very strong. If a Graha has the required Shadbala, it proves favourable to the native by virtue of its strength. However, Śani’s extreme strength gives long life as well as miseries.
Phaladeepika 4.22: Surya is declared strong when his strength is 6½ Rupas. In the case of Chandra, it is 6½ Rupas. Five Rupas are assigned to Mangal and 7 to Budha. Guru’s Purna-bala is similar to that of Surya, that is 6½ Rupas. Shukra is strong when he gets 5½ Rupas.
Phaladeepika 4.23: Shani should have 5 Rupas. These are the figures representing the total Shadbala for the several Grahas. If the respective figures be otherwise, i.e., less than the above, the Grahas should be considered as weak. It is only after a minute examination of the several kinds of strength of the several Grahas, one ought to declare their effects.
The Maximum Attainable Strength of the Grahas
Quick Estimation of Strength according to Jataka Parijata (2.61–69)
Given below are some key strengths of the Grahas, which can help in quickly arriving at a rough estimation of the strength without going into elaborate computation. Jataka Parijata considers them the most important sources of strength, hence mentioned only these. These can also be used to understand the sources of strength that are important.
- Surya: Exaltation, Own sign, Own Vargas, Sunday, Uttarayana, First Drekkana of a Rasi, Friend’s Drekkana, Hora and Navamsa, 10th house.
- Chandra: In Karka and Vrshabha, Monday, Own Vargas, Last drekkana of a sign, Aspected by Shubha Grahas, Night time, 4th house, Dakshinayana, Full Moon, Not in rasi sandhi.
- Mangal: Tuesday, Own Vargas, Meena, Vrschika, Kumbha, Makara, Mesha, Night time, Retrograde, Southern direction (10th house), First Drekkana of a Rasi, Cancer coinciding with the 10th house.
- Budha: Kanya, Mithuna, Wednesday, Own Vargas, Dhanu if not placed with the Sun, both day and night time, Middle drekkana, Lagna.
- Guru: Meena, Vrschika, Dhanu, Karka, Own Vargas, Thursday, Middle part of the day, Uttarayana, Middle Drekkana of a sign, Kumbha, even in Neecha Rasi, Gives much wealth in Lagna/4th/10th, Karka in 10th House.
- Shukra: Uccha Rasi, Own Vargas, Friday, Middle drekkana of a sign, 4th house, Noon time, Graha Yuddha, Conjunct with Chandra (Samagama), Vakri, Ahead of Surya.
- Shani: Tula, Makara, Kumbha, 7th house, Dakshinayana, Own drekkana, Saturday, 3rd drekkana of a Rasi, Graha Yuddha, Krsna Paksha, Vakri.
- Rahu: Mesha, Vrsha, Karka, Kanya, Vrschika, Kumbha, 10th House.
- Ketu: Kanya, Meena, Vrshabha, Dhanu, Night time, Rising time (ref Brhat Samhita chapter 46 and Jataka Parijata chapter 11)
Conclusion on the Shadbala
It may not always be practical to mathematically determine the strength of the Grahas. However, a good understanding of the conditions in which different Grahas attain strength can help in quick visual estimation of strength.
The Authors of Jataka Parijata and Phaladeepika provided their views on the circumstances in which Grahas attain strength which is same as Parashara’s Shadbala model, however, the focus is more on getting a sense of the strength through quick visual estimation.
When one attains proper understanding of 6 sources of strength, one does not need to rely upon complete computation.
Special Strength of Chandra
Chandra is the natural sustainer of the horoscope being the representation of mother and her compassion and care. It is the only graha that undergoes waxing and waning depending on its closeness towards Surya. For Chandra, it is said that Paksha Bala is more important than its Stanabala. So, even though it may occupy its Neecha, but if it is strong in Paksha Bala, then it is to be considered strong. In addition, if Chandra is a strong in a Horoscope, other Grahas are also to be considered as considerably strong as Chandra lends its strength to all the Grahas. It is known that all the Shubha grahas attain their strength depending on Chandra’s Shukla Paksha. Hence, stronger is Chandra in its Paksha Bala, stronger are the Shubha Grahas.
Phaladeepika 4.21: It is said that Paksha-bala is of special importance to Chandra, while the Bala arising from Sthana is important for the other Grahas. This strength when added to the other varieties of strength of a Graha will greatly increase the strength of that Graha. There are many such types of strength.
Saravali 5.16–17: The vrddha Yavanas say that Chandra is of medium strength for ten days commencing from Shukla Pratipada i.e., Shukla Pratipada to Shukla Dashami. During the following ten days i.e., from Shukla Ekadashi to Krsna Panchami she is exceedingly strong. And during the third ten-day period i.e. Krsna Shasti to Amavashya she has very little strength. When at birth Chandra has brilliant rays, circled by a bright halo and is full, it makes the native an unconquerable king.
Uccha Vakri Graha
It is said that when a Graha attains Uccha and is also Vakra, its results of Uccha is nullified. In my humble opinion, this is particularly true when (1) the Vakra graha is moving away from its Paramoccha position, (2) The Vakra graha is moving towards the Paramoccha position but is moving into the Uccha Rasi from the next Rasi.
Saravali 5.14: When a Graha is retrograde, but occupies its exaltation, it produces no auspicious effect. This is the view held by some. Even, if it is in exaltation by its entry in retrograde motion from the next Sign, the effect is same, for it takes unduly long time in such traversing.
Strength of grahas in different states
The strength of a Graha, particularly the Sthana bala can be estimated when their avastha is known.
Saravali 5.15: A Graha in exaltation is considered highly strong. It is medium in strength in its Mulatrikona Rāśi, or Svakshetra. Its strength is only nominal, if it be aspected by a Mitra graha, or when occupies a Mitra Rāśi.
Strength of the Bhavas
A Bhava attains strength under following conditions:
- The nature of the Rasi falling in the Lagna determines its strength. The Rasis are classified into Nara or Manushya, Chatuspada, Jalachara and Keeta.
- Manushya Rasis are Mithuna, Kanya, Tula, Kumbha and 1st half of Dhanu. Chatuspada Rasis are Mesha, Vrshabha, Simha and 2nd half of Dhanu and 1st half of Makara. Jalachara Rasis are Meena and 2nd half of Makara. Kept Rasis are Karka and Vrschika. Karka is considered both Jalachara as well as Keeta Rasi. This classification of Rasis are based on legs or mobility. No leg = Jalachara or Sarisripa such as fishes and snakes. 2 legs = Manushya, 4 legs = Chatuspada, 6 or more legs = Keeta.
- According to Brhat Jataka Kantaka, the Nara Rasis, Mithuna, Kanya, Tula, the first half of Dhanus and Kumbha are powerful in the Lagna. The Jalachara Rasis, Kataka, Meena, the second half of Makara are powerful in the fourth. Keeta Rasi Vrschika is powerful in the 7th, and Chatuspada Rasis Mesha, Vrishabha, Simha, the 2nd half of Dhanus and the 1st half of Makara become strong in the 10th houses.
- Maharishi Parashara’s computation is based on (1) identifying the nature of the Rasi falling in the Bhava, (2) identifying the Kendra where that Rasi attains zero Bala viz., Manushya = 7th house, Chatuspada = 4th house, Keeta = Lagna, and Jalachara = Karma. One may observe that this mapping is just opposite of Brhat Jataka, where the mapping of 100% strength is given. (3) Determine the proportional increase of the strength based on the nearness from the Kendra.
- Bhava conjoined or aspected by Guru or Budha gains strength, while those conjoined or aspected by Shani, Mangal and Surya lose strength. Each gain and loss is of 60 Virupas (1 rupa).
- According to Phaladeepika conjunction or aspect of Shukra also contributes strength, but then it should be considered lower than that of Guru and Budha as Maharishi Parashara kept out Shukra out of the picture.
- Similarly, conjunction of aspect of the lord of the Bhava contributes to the strength of the Bhava.
- The Bhava’s strength is also contributed by the lord of the Bhava. The shadbala of the Bhava lord’s strength should be added to the Bhava’s strength.
- The following combination based on the rising nature of the Rasi gives 1/4th quantum of strong (15 virupas). Sheershodaya Rasi = Day birth, Prshtodaya Rasi = Night birth, Ubhayodaya Rasi = Dusk or Dawn, Sandhya (twilight).
- The day strong Rasis are Simha to Vrschika, Kumbha and Meena. The night strong Rasis are Mesha to Karka, Dhanu and Makara. According to Phaladeepika, day strong Rasis are strong for day birth, while night strong Rasis are strong for night birth.
- Sirshodaya signs are day strong signs while Prshtodaya signs are night strong Rasis with exceptions of Mithuna and Meena. Mithuna is a night strong Rasi but is Sirshodaya while Meena is day strong Rasi but Ubhayodaya.
- According to Phaladeepika, Lagnesha occupying an Upachaya makes Lagna very strong.
BPHS 27.26–29. Bhava Balas. Deduct Yuvati Bhava from the Bhava, if the Bhava happens to be Manushya Rasis, Kanya, Mithuna, Tula, Kumbha, or the first half of Dhanu. If Chatuspada Rasis, Mesha, Vrishabha, Simha, or first half of Makara, or the second half of Dhanu happen to be the Bhava, deduct Bandhu Bhava from it. Should the Bhava be in Keeta Rasis, Karka or Vrschika, deduct from it Lagna. Deduct Karma Bhava from the Bhava falling in Jalachara Rasis, Makara second half or Meena. Convert the product so obtained into degrees etc. and divide by 3 to get Bhava Bal. If the balance in the process of deducting Nadir, Meridian, Lagna, or Yuvati exceeds 6 Rāśis, deduct it again from 12 Rāśis, before converting into degrees and dividing by 3. The product after division should be increased by one fourth, if the Bhava in question receives a benefic Drishti. If the Bhava receives a malefic Drishti, one fourth should be reduced. If Guru, or Budha give a Drishti to a Bhava, add that Graha’s Drgbala also. And then super-add the strength, acquired by the Lord of that Bhava. This will be the net Bhava Bal.
BPHS 27.30–31. Special Rules. The Bhavas, occupied by Guru and Budha will each get an addition of 1 Rupa, while each of the Bhavas, occupied by Śani, Mangal and Sūrya, suffer 1 Rupa reduction. 15 Virupas will have to be added to the Bhavas, falling in Sheershodaya Rāśis, if birth happens to be in day time, to the Bhavas, falling in Dual Rāśis, if birth happens to be in twilight and to the Bhavas, falling in Prshtodaya Rāśis, if birth be in night time.
Phaladeepika 4.6a. If the first Bhava be a Manushya Rasi, 1 Rupa has to be allotted to it; if it be Keeta Rasi, the Bala is ¼; if it be any other Rasi, the strength is ½. The strength of the Lagna is equal to that of its lord and is very powerful when the lord occupies an Upachaya (3rd, 6th, 10th or 11th) house.
Phaladeepika 4.6b. The same is also the case when the Bhava is occupied or aspected by Shukra, its lord, Budha or Guru, and is at the same time without the conjunction or aspect of any other planet. The day signs possess strength in day-births, while night signs are declared powerful in night-births.
Saravali 5.19–20: The effects revealed by various Rāśis will correspond to the strengths of their Lords. Should two Grahas have identical strength, the one with higher Naisargika Bala will prevail. According to Chudamani Acharya the Ascendant’s strength equals that of its Lord.
Inauspiciousness of grahas in different dignities
The inauspiciousness is just the reverse of auspiciousness. A graha is of highest inauspiciousness when it is Neecha, and is zero when it is Uccha. In all other places, its inauspiciousness = 1 — auspiciousness.
Saravali 5.26: A Graha is fully inauspicious, if it is in its debilitation; it is somewhat better in inimical House. Its inauspicious effects are nil, if it is exalted, ¾ in friendly House, ½ in own House and ¼ in Mulatrikona Rāśi.
A Graha is considered weak, hence capable of giving inauspicious results when the graha is combust due to closeness with surya, is neecha hence has less brilliance, in Shatru Rasi, or when it is defeated in a Graha Yuddha. The combination for Utpata (disruption) will be explained elsewhere.
Saravali 5.27: The planetary combination, that produces Utpata, the Graha, that is combust by Surya, with less brilliance, which is in debilitation, in enemy’s camp, or, that is defeated in planetary war: such a Graha not only loses its potency to be auspicious, but also becomes capable of bestowing inauspicious results in full.
Effect of various dignities of grahas
A graha is capable of various kinds of results depending on its dignity. The high level results are given below. This of course varies depending on the specific graha attaining the dignity and other yogas in the horoscope.
- Uccha Rasi: Wealth
- Mulatrikona Rasi: Leadership, ministership
- Own Rasi: Happiness, wealth, good food.
- Mitra Rasi: Fame, splendour, good fortune, lasting wealth.
Saravali 5.28–29: A Graha in exaltation gives all kinds of wealth. It confers ministership, or leadership over Army, if in Mulatrikona Rāśi. If it is in own House, it gives happiness, grains, wealth etc. In a friendly House, it gives fame, splendour, abundant good fortune, long-lasting wealth and also wealth through king.
Effects of placement in own Vargas
The good placement of a graha in different Vargas have different shades of good results. What is mentioned in Saravali as belonging to own varga can also extended to Uccha, Mulatrikona or Mitra Vargas. They results are are:
- Shubha Hora: Courage
- Shubha Drekkana: Virtues
- Shubha Navamsa: Fame
- Shubha Saptamsa: Courage, Wealth, Fame
- Shubha Dvadasamsa: Devout (religious), helpful
- Shubha Trimsamsa: Happiness (Rajas Guna), good qualities (Sattva Guna)
When a Graha is aspected by a Shubha Graha, it becomes capable of blessing the native with wealth, fame, fortune, leadership abilities, pleasant appearance and happiness.
Saravali 5.30: A Graha, that is in its own Hora, makes one courageous.
Saravali 5.31: A Graha in its own Drekkana confers virtues, while the one in own Navāńśa makes one famous.
Saravali 5.32: Courage, wealth and fame are bestowed by a Graha occupying its own Saptamsa. One becomes devout and helpful, if a Graha is in its own Dvadasamsa.
Saravali 5.33: A Graha in own Trimsamsa gives happiness and good qualities. When a Graha is aspected by a benefic Graha, the native becomes wealthy, famous, fortunate, chief of all, beautiful and happy.
Effect of strengths arising out of different limbs of Shadbala
When graha are endowed with one of different sources of strength, that constitute the Shadbala, they give different kinds of results. Understanding the philosophy behind the results is important.
Results 1: Results of Oja and Yugma bala
- Ojayugma Bala: Grahas endowed with Oja or Yugma Bala, which is due to their alignment with the masculine or feminine principle, they become capable of giving good results such as:
- Respect from people
- Expertise in arts and crafts which may depend on which principle, masculine or feminine is predominant
- Freedom and protection from diseases
- Sthana Bala: When a graha attains other sources of positional strength (Sthana Bala), they become capable of giving following good results:
- Friendship with people represented by the Rasis that become the source of the strength. People who are represented by the Rasi will also provide all support necessary for the person to be successful.
- Stability and steadiness of mind, so that the native can focus his attention on a specific area and achieve success
- Freedom from servitude, or serving others. Which means a graha in positional strength can give one an independent profession, particularly when it is connected to Artha Trikona (2, 6, 10).
Saravali 5.34–35: If a Graha is with Ojha or Yugma Bala, the native is worshipped by the public, expert in arts, pleased, immune to sickness and prone to fear of other Worlds. A Graha with positional strength gives perennial happiness, friendship, courage, fixity of mind and independent profession.
Results 2: Results of Dikbala and Ayanabala
When a graha attains Dikbala, it gives success in the direction ruled by the Graha. Our tradition however teaches that this is particularly true when the graha attains such strength seen from the Arudha Lagna. Here success in the direction involved can mean, gain good clothes, conveyances, happiness, jewels and gemstones etc. The native may chose the location or country indicated by the graha attaining dikbala.
The results of the Ayana bala is similar to Dikbala, where the focus is on the direction of success. This however is true when the Dikbali graha is not weak due to combustion, neecha or say defeat in graha yuddha. If the Dikbali graha attains a good rasi such as Svarasi, Uccha, Mulatrikona, or Mitra Rasi, the results are even better.
Saravali 5.36: A Graha with directional strength takes the native to the direction ruled by it and gives clothes, jewels, conveyances etc. And the native is happy in such a direction.
Saravali 5.37: A Graha with Ayana Bala similarly takes the native to its direction and confers various kinds of wealth apart from fame. In both the cases, the Grahas should not be combust, or debilitated.
Results 3: Effect of Chesta Bala:
When a Graha attains Chesta Bala, which is true for the Tara Grahas, Mangal to Shani, it gives great strength. It blesses the native with leadership abilities, respect and honour, wealth, or fame. However, the Vakri graha are highly unpredictable, hence, there is a great deal of uncertainty in the results of such graha. The same can expected when Chandra is strong in Paksha Bala and Surya is strong in Ayana Bala as these two grahas don’t have Chesta Bala.
Saravali 5.38: If a Graha has Cheshta Bala, it sometimes gives kingdom, sometimes respect, sometimes money and yet sometimes increases the fame of the native.
while it is known that a graha attains Chesta Bala when they are Vakri, the results are different especially with regards to the natural significations of the graha. A Vakri Shubha graha becomes highly Shubha, while a Vakri Papa graha becomes highly Papa. Vakri Shubha graha can bestow great fortune, while Vakri Papagraha bestows purposeless wandering. This gets modified by Bhava lordship, placement and other yogas. The Vakri Shubha grahas should not occupy a Dusthana. And they do, they should not be afflicted by papagrahas, else, that is the sure shot recipe for disaster.
Saravali 5.39: A benefic, if retrograde, is strong and is capable of conferring kingdom. If a malefic is retrograde, it causes grief and purposeless wandering.
Results 4: Graha in strength:
A Graha is capable of conferring happiness and success in life, when it is endowed with great strength, i.e., through Uccha, conjunction with a strong Chandra (Samagama), or victory in graha Yuddha. Shukra is never defeated in Graha Yuddha, hence should always be considered strong, especially when it is Retrograde.
Saravali 5.40: A Graha with clear rays (uccha), or, that is conjunct with Chandra, or, that has won in a Graha Yuddha war, is capable of bestowing complete happiness and kingdom, that cannot be seized.
Results 5: Effects of Diva Bala and Ratri Bala
The diva and ratri bala are time bound strength, which means that they give success in a certain time of the day. Graha that are strong with Diva Bala will support in attaining success during the day time and vice-versa. The success can come in the form of accession of land, properties, conveyances, victory over enemies, authority and wealth. These results will also get modified based on other yoga.
Saravali 5.41: A Graha, that has Diva or Ratri Bala, is capable of conferring lands, elephants etc. Such a native defeats his enemies with courage and achieves kingdom and wealth.
Results 6: Effects of Lord of Year, Month, Week lord and Hora lord
The lords of the year, months etc. are very important from a time standpoint. When the year and month coincide with a good dasa i.e., that of yogakaraka etc., the strength of the results multiplies. Similarly, undertaking activities during the Day or Hora of a yogakaraka will ensure success in the work governed by the said strong graha. In this regard, the day and hora of the birth gains great prominence, particularly when these graha are endowed with positional strength in the horoscope.
Saravali 5.42: The Lords of the year, month, week and Hora improve two-fold in their Dasas happiness, wealth and fame. That is the Lord of the month gives two-fold results, as against year Lord, the week Lord two-fold of month Lord and the Hora Lord two-fold of week Lord.
Results 7: Effects of high paksha bala
Paksha Bala is another key component of time-based strength. Which means that the grahas that are active at birth based on the paksha of birth will give their results when that particular paksha is active.
It can also be said that grahas with strong positional strength will give their results when the graha achieves strength during the appropriate paksha. When the Shubha grahas are strong or they become yogakaraka in a horoscope, the native attains higher chances of success in Shukla Paksha. The reverse is true when the Krura grahas are strong or they become yogakaraka.
Saravali 5.43: A Graha with Paksha Bala destroys enemies and confers diamonds, robes, conveyances, wife, gold, land and fame.
Results 8: Effects of a Graha with all Sources of Strengths
When a Graha is endowed with all the 6 forms of strength, the native attains great success in life, provided the graha is involved in a good yoga. When a Dusthana lord attains great strength, then they will also manifest their results by putting the native in great difficulties.
Ideally the Lagnesha, Kendresha, Kenosha and Labhesha should be endowed with great strength, for the native to attain great success in life.
Saravali 5.44: Should a Graha have all kinds of strengths stated so far and be bright with unobscured rays, it confers kingdom exceeding the desires of the native.
Shubha or Krura grahas with all-round Strength
When Shubha Grahas are strong at birth, the native is blessed with a “Shubha” personality. Thus, by “nature”, the native is (1) truthful, (2) upright (not deceptive), (3) beautiful or handsome appearance, (4) splendorous, (5) an expert in various deeds, (6) respectful towards the scholars and the Gods. This is all about the nature of the native, however, whether the native gains or loses in life is dependent on how these grahas are situated functionally and what good or bad yogas these grahas are involved in. Not all good and righteous people gain great success in life. Similarly not all sinful people are failures. It all depends on how these grahas give their results based on their ownership, placement and other yogas.
Saravali 5.45: If at birth benefic Grahas possess all-round strength, the native will have good habits, be truthful, upright, beautiful, splendorous and be an expert in all deeds, respectful towards the wise and Gods and will be blessed with scents, garlands, robes, ornaments etc.
On the contrary, when Krura Grahas attain various strength, the native is imbibed with their natural qualities, which are (1) miserly (not charitable and selfish), (2) jealous of virtuous people, (3) fond of promoting quarrels, (4) wicked, (5) torturous, (6) dirty, (7) ungrateful, (8) slanderous and (9) ugly.
Saravali 5.46: Should malefics be with such all-round strength at birth, the native will be a miser, will do bad acts, be selfish, jealous of virtuous people, intent on promoting quarrels, wicked, torturous, dirty, ungrateful, slanderous and ugly.
The qualities mentioned here are general qualities; to understand them better, one should make a thorough study of the nature, appearance and disposition of individual grahas.
Effects of Planetary Avasthas
There are other forms of strength that is similar to the graha avasthas. They are as follows:
- Childhood: Sva, Mitra, Mulatrikona Rasi
- Teenage: Uccha Rasi
- Old age: Inimical Rasi
- Dying stage: Neecha Rasi
This classification is done to add one more dimension to the analysis, which is akin to the characteristics of those age group. For instance, when a graha is in childhood age, it is very playful, experimentation minded. Similarly, when a graha is in Teenage age, it is full of energy and driving and is geared towards great achievements in life; it is also highly enterprising. The results of these stages attitude by Saravali are:
- Childhood: Happiness
- Teenage: Virtue, authority
- Old age: Sickness, debts, death
- Dying stage: expenses
Saravali 5.47–50: It is Childhood, if a Graha is in its own House, or friendly House. In Mulatrikona Rāśi, it is in youth and in adolescence in exaltation. It is said to be in old stage, if it occupies an inimical House. A Graha in debilitation is in extrimis. The corresponding effects are felt in the respective Planetary Dashas. The results for such stages are, respectively, happiness, virtue, kingdom, sickness with debts and death, or expenses.
Effects of Grahas in Odd and Even Rāśis
The results of grahas are also modified by their placement in Odd or Even Rasis. Odd Rasis are imbibed with Masculine energy, while the Even Rasis are imbibed with Feminine energy. The results attributed to them by Saravali are:
- Odd-strength: Courageous, Warrior
- Odd-weakness: Cruelty, dull-wittedness
- Even-strength: Soft-nature, peaceful, love for beautiful things in life such as water sports, flower, clothes etc., good fortune, good health, protection of own men etc.
- Even-weakness: Not given. In my humble opinion, this can indicate selfishness, miserliness, lack of gratitude
Saravali 5.51–52: A Graha in odd Rāśi with strength makes the native courageous and a warrior. If it is weak in odd Rāśi, the native is cruel and dull-witted. A Graha in even Rāśi gives soft nature, fear for quarrels, love for water, flowers and clothes, good fortune, health and protection of own men.