The Kali Epoch and Ahargana: Part 2: The Start Date of Kali Yuga

Aryabatiya of Aryabhata (Translated: Kripa Shankar Shukla)

Sri Kripa Shankar Shukla says that “the epoch of the planetary motion mentioned in the text marks the beginning of the current yuga and not the beginning of the current Kalpa as was supposed by PC Sengupta. The current Kalpa, according to Aryabhata I, started on Thursday 1,98,28,80,000 years or 7,24,26,41,32,500 days before the beginning of the current yuga; and 1,98,61,20,000 years or 7,25,447,570,625 days before the beginning of the current Kaliyuga. The current Kaliyuga began on Friday 18, 3102 BC at Sunrise at Lanka (a hypothetical place on the equator where the meridian of Ujjain intersects it, which synchronised with the beginning of the light half of Luna (synodic) month of Chaitra.”

The start date and time of the Kali yuga

The start of the year reckoning has been based on Amanta Calendar by all the major authors. This becomes evident from the computation of Ahargana, which where the beginning of the year is taken from Chaitra Shukla Pratipada.

Following the same principle, the Kali yuga started on a Chaitra Shukla Pratipada when Sun-Moon conjoined in Sidereal Pisces in the year -3101 or 3102 BC.The difference in the year notation is because there is no 0 year in the English calendric system, Julian or Gregorian. The previous year to 1 AD is 1 BC. On the other hand, when the year is denoted in a integer scale, the previous year to +1 is 0 which is preceded by -1. One may reflect upon why Zero was not used in the english calendar?

Given below are the map of the sky (horoscopes) at the moment of beginning of the Kali yuga, when Sun and Moon conjoined exactly. Since, Ayanamsa is a topic of debate, I have also given below the exact position of the Luminaries at the moment of beginning of the Kali yuga as per few major ayanamsas.

True Chitra Paksha

Surya Siddhanta

Dr. BV Raman

Sri Yuktesvar Giri

Pushya Paksha (PVR Narasimha Rao)

The Chaitra Shukla Pratipada on the Kali yuga -3101 (3102 BC) happened on 22nd January at 7:04:07 IST. The date is based on “Proleptic Gregorian Calendar” The Date as per Julian Calendar is February 17th. You can note that in all the charts, the longitude of Sun and the Moon are exactly the same, marking the end of Amavasya and beginning of Shukla Pratipada.

The follower of Surya Siddhanta Ayanamsa may note that, the conjunction of the luminaries happened on 20th February instead of 22nd January, which is different from the Conventional wisdom. This raised some question on the Validity of this Ayanamsa. I am not suggesting we should reject this Ayanamsa, but this certainly needs a critical look.

Details of the start day of the Kali yuga.

Ujjain the seat of Mahakala Shiva, the lord of the space and time. Hence, all the calendar reckoning should start from Ujjain. This is also the prime meridian (akin to modern days GMT) and the reckoning of time starts here. The meridian coincide with Lanka, an hypothetical place having same longitude as Ujjain and located on the equator (Latitude = 0).

Date:          January 22, -3101
Time: 6:37:11
Time Zone: 5:03:04 (East of GMT)
Place: 75 E 46' 00", 23 N 11' 00"
Ujjain, India
Altitude: 0.00 meters

Lunar Yr-Mo: Pramathi - Chaitra
Tithi: Sukla Pratipat (Su) (100.00% left)
Vedic Weekday: Wednesday (Me)
Nakshatra: Revati (Me) (72.00% left)
Yoga: Indra (Ra) (44.01% left)
Karana: Kimstughna (Ju) (100.00% left)
Hora Lord: Saturn (5 min sign: Vi)
Mahakala Hora: Jupiter (5 min sign: Li)
Kaala Lord: Moon (Mahakala: Mercury)

Sunrise: 6:53:41 (January 21)
Sunset: 17:42:09 (January 21)
Janma Ghatis: 59.3123

Ayanamsa: 313-24-03.63
Sidereal Time: 14:44:15

The Weekday and Year name

The Weekday is Wednesday as the tithi started before the Sunrise time. However, since the day is reckoned from the Sunrise time (to the next Sunrise), we can say that the day (and for that matter, the month and year) started on a Thursday.

The year is Pramathi which is the 13th year in the cycle of 60 years, from (1)Prabhava to (60)Kṣaya.

Looking up the details at Sunrise, i.e., the start of the day, we get the following-

Date:          January 22, -3101
Time: 6:53:16
Time Zone: 5:03:00 (East of GMT)
Place: 75 E 46' 00", 23 N 11' 00"
Ujjain, India
Altitude: 0.00 meters

Lunar Yr-Mo: Pramathi - Chaitra
Tithi: Sukla Pratipat (Su) (98.80% left)
Vedic Weekday: Thursday (Ju)
Nakshatra: Revati (Me) (70.85% left)
Yoga: Indra (Ra) (42.77% left)
Karana: Kimstughna (Ju) (97.61% left)
Hora Lord: Jupiter (5 min sign: Pi)
Mahakala Hora: Jupiter (5 min sign: Cp)
Kaala Lord: Jupiter (Mahakala: Jupiter)

Sunrise: 6:53:16
Sunset: 17:42:38
Janma Ghatis: 0.0003

Ayanamsa: 313-24-03.63
Sidereal Time: 15:00:26

It is a Thursday in the year Pramathi, month Chaitra, Shukla Pratipad tithi, Revati Nakshatra. This coincided with the 21th day of the Chaitra month in the Solar Calendar i.e., Sun was in the 21st Degree as per Lahiri Ephemeris.

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