Teaching Home Robots with Programmable Data

Leveraging Stereo Vision to Transfer from Simulation to Reality

By: Kevin Stone and Mike Laskey

Our home robot in the kitchen. The robot is reasoning about where the wipeable surface is to clean (top right image) and how to grasp the objects given the 3D oriented bounding boxes. The perception for this task was trained with programmable data.

At TRI, our goal is to make breakthrough capabilities in Artificial Intelligence (AI). Projects range from self-driving cars to home robotics. Despite recent advancements in AI, the large amount of data collection needed to deploy systems in unstructured environments continues to be a burden.

Data collection in computer vision can be both quite costly and time-consuming, largely due to the process of annotating. Annotating data is typically done by a team of labelers, who are provided a long list of rules for how to handle different scenarios and what data to collect. For complex systems like a home robot or a self-driving car, these rules must be constantly refined, which creates an expensive feedback loop.

For example, our home robot, shown above, was tasked with identifying objects on a table. The initial data we trained on consisted solely of images of tables with clutter on top. At runtime, the robot had significant error when shown empty tables and required more data to be collected. If we relied on real-world data to fix our problem, an individual would have to go into homes, capture images of tables with various levels of clutter, and then annotate them, which could take days.

A promising alternative is the use of synthetic data, where a computer simulates a 3D world, similar to a video game, and then renders the image and desired labels from the scene. Since synthetic data can now be programmed, an engineer can address unforeseen and unrepresented environments — in our example, tables without clutter objects — by simply writing a patch to the code rather than using real-world data that is time-consuming to collect. The engineer now has far greater control over the data, which can enable rapid iteration on model errors and customizability.

While the promise of synthetic data is enticing, the difficulty is designing a simulator that is easily programmable and that can translate to reality. Current photo-realistic approaches to simulator design require laborious artist-curated mesh assets and scene placement to recreate the physical world. Inspired by techniques in domain randomization [1,9], where textures, lighting, and scene placement are algorithmically generated, we are exploring how to create a procedural simulator that can be easily adapted to new domains from dining room tables to self-driving cars.

Our main finding is that by forcing a deep network to explicitly reason about geometry from stereo images, we can dramatically reduce the complexity of simulation and still achieve robust transfer in very unstructured domains. The intuition for this is that we can learn to understand the world geometrically, like humans do, and remove the need for complex photo-realism. In this blog post, we show how using ideas from the learned stereo community, we can train a model on low-quality synthetic data and obtain results on par with real-world data. We then describe how the same simulator is used on our robotic fleet to enable a home robot to reason about unknown objects and wipe surfaces.

Transferring from Simulation with Stereo Cameras

To transfer from simulation to real, the network needs to be able to reason about the world in a way that is invariant between the two domains. One promising technique used to make transferrable data is to use geometric features, such as a depth image or a point cloud [3,10]. In this approach a network is trained on a synthetic geometric representation and then at run time a sensor is used to extract 3D geometry of the environment. The intuition is that geometry is consistent between the real world and simulation, so features learned in simulation should be invariant.

Currently, the common way to extract geometry from real-world environments is utilizing either LIDAR or structured light sensors. These are both active sensors, which project light to infer depth. While these sensors can produce great results, they have several significant limitations. LIDAR is typically a very expensive solution that makes it impractical for a lot of applications. While structure light sensors are lower in cost, they have trouble with objects that disrupt infrared light, such as black objects, glassware, stainless steel, and natural sunlight. In the home robotic setting, these situations are far too common for the sensor to be reliable.

An alternative to active sensors is to use a stereo pair of images to derive the geometry of a scene. Stereo images are created with a pair of two cameras that are positioned horizontally from each other by a fixed distance, or baseline. The most common stereo pair is human eyes. Stereo cameras infer the distance to a target point, by understanding the relative distance between where the point is projected on the two images. The relative distance is commonly referred to as disparity, which is proportional to the absolute distance from the camera.

Example images from our procedural simulator, which are used for training a 2D car detector. The data is abstract and low quality, which is consistent with training data used for learned stereo networks [9]. However, the scene layout places cars in natural-like configurations, which enables “high-level” vision tasks, like detection, to transfer.

While understanding where a point in one image is on the adjacent image seems easy, it can actually be quite challenging for a computer — especially when encountering large texture-less surfaces like white walls or stainless steel appliances. Classical techniques to solve this problem have suffered from not having the correct feature space to address these challenges. Thus, there has been a recent surge in research in leveraging deep networks to learn better features for stereo matching.

Recently, a surprising result [9] came out about the quality of data needed to train stereo networks. The authors showed that since stereo matching is a “low-level” vision task, the datasets can be completely divorced from reality and low-quality. The intuition for the result is that features for stereo matching can be trained in a generic way that doesn’t require understanding the semantics of the world. Given this new technique to extract dense geometric features, we wondered if it can replace the need for depth sensors for transferring “high-level” vision? To test this, we designed a simulator for car detection that used the procedural randomization methods from [9] but had a scene layout to coarsely mimic the real world.

While the simulator, shown above, might seem chaotic, the underlying algorithm is quite simple. First, cars are placed in natural-like positions on a flat plane. Then, random objects from the ShapeNet [6] are sampled in the free space and scaled to building size. The lighting, texture, and camera noise are implemented by the procedural algorithms listed in [9]. The simulator is implemented in python with OpenGL shaders. Leveraging $60 of cloud computing, we can generate a dataset of 50K examples in an hour.

A rough sketch of how stereo can be fed into a single-shot detector. Features are computed on the left and right images. The features are then matched in the cost volume and a disparity image is computed. The geometry is then fused with the left RGB image and fed into the backbone of the detection network.

To learn stereo matching, we train a network heavily inspired by DispNet-Corr [4] on the generated data. DispNet-Corr is a simple stereo algorithm that relies only on 2D convolutions, which makes it ideal for real-time applications. DispNet-Corr works by having a feature extractor with shared weights run on both the left and right image. Pixel-wise features are then computed for each image and a cost volume is calculated, which stores the correlation of each pixel to one another. This can actually be done efficiently since we only need to consider matches along the “scan-line” or horizontal row of the image. The features with the highest correlation are considered a match and that determines the pixel displacement or disparity.

Given the disparity map generated from the stereo network, we concatenate it with the left RGB image and feed it as input into the network. Empirically, we have found that adding the left image in an early fusion step with the disparity map improves performance. A similar result was seen in the case with structured light sensors [10]. We hypothesize this enables robustness to the errors from the learned stereo network and can also offer coarse texture information. A high-level architecture of this network can be seen above for the 2D car detection task. We have empirically found the network can be trained end-to-end or have frozen stereo weights with little performance difference.

To test if using stereo matching enables reliable transfer for high-level vision, we evaluate it on the KITTI benchmark [7] with the task of 2D car detection. For inference, we train a single shot detector that is inspired by CenterNet [2]. If we train the network on real KITTI data and test it, we can achieve 86 mAP@0.5 on the aggregate Easy+Moderate class which is comparable to the published CenterNet numbers. If we train the same network while feeding in our stereo predictions with 50K examples from our simulated data it achieves 83 mAP, or a 4% difference. However, the network achieves only 68 mAP when trained on only monocular images from the simulator. These results are preliminary but suggest a simple stereo algorithm can enable robust transfer from the simulation. Below are qualitative results of both the predictions and the learned stereo that were trained solely on the rendered images from our simulator.

The detections on KITTI from the network trained in our simulator. In the top right, the stereo predictions are being visualized, despite being trained only on procedural data it can compute dense geometric features of the scene. Our detector uses these geometric features to predict 2D bounding boxes on cars in the real world.

Programmable Data Applied to Home Robotics

To better illustrate the capability of programmable data, we integrated it into our home robotic fleet [11]. One common task in the home is wiping surfaces clean. In order for a robot to perform this task, it needs to identify the surface that should be wiped and the size of all objects that should be moved. The robot can achieve this by segmenting out the wipeable surface and detecting 3D oriented bounding boxes of the objects on it. At the beginning of the blog post, we show our robot performing this task.

Manual annotation of pixel-level segmentation and 3D bounding boxes would be a challenging task for human annotators. Programmable data though offers a relatively straightforward solution to this problem. Using our procedural simulator, we created a scene layout with a table sampled in the middle of the room and random appliances placed around the object. We then sample objects on the table in random poses. Shown below are rendered images from different camera viewpoints.

Example renders of our simulator for wipeable surfaces with objects placed on them Like the in the car example, the simulator is low quality and procedural, which makes it trivial to program and reconfigure.

Given this data, we train a network to jointly learn the predictions of both, the oriented bounding boxes and segmentation of the wipeable surface. The architecture of this network is heavily inspired by Mobile-Pose [5], however, we added our stereo network discussed in the previous section. Additionally in MobilePose, the network predicts absolute object pose. Since we are interested in oriented bounding boxes, we instead regress the elements of the covariance matrix computed from mesh vertices. We train the network on 50k synthetic images, which can be generated in an hour from our simulator.

To test how robust the perception can be in unstructured environments, we curated an internal validation dataset of 30 reconstructed scenes with labeled 3D bounding boxes of each object on the table, using a similar annotation method in [5]. On this dataset we can achieve 89.1 mAP@0.25 with a 3D IOU, using the stereo network. If we swap the network with an off-the-shelf structured light sensor. Then retrain the model with synthetic depth plus added noise. The performance drops to 67.2 mAP. Thus suggesting raw stereo images can provide more robust geometric features than structured light sensors. Shown below are three scenes from our validation data with the predictions being shown.

Images from our validation dataset with the predictions from the panoptic network overlaid. Top: Is 3D oriented bounding boxes for each object. Note: Oriented bounding boxes can rotate freely along axes with similar dimensions. Bottom: Wipeable surface segmentation where green is the surface and red is an object. Despite only being trained on low-quality synthetic data, we are able to achieve robust transfer in a variety of home scenes.

Current Limitations of Programmable Data

Programmable data seems like a very promising research direction but does have limitations. The technique presented in this blog post relies heavily on geometric features extracted from stereo matching. The ability to infer geometry decays at distance, which means far away objects are difficult to detect. A promising solution to this problem is to add more contextual information using advanced scene placement techniques, as in [8]. The other limitation to this approach is that we are currently restricted to perception tasks. Ideally for robotic systems, we would want to also learn control policies in simulation that transfer. However, that will potentially require significant advances in contact modeling, which is an active focus at TRI.

Broader Societal Impact

We are motivated to research programmable data because it can offer a solution to the issue of AI accessibility. Current solutions to high-performance perception require a large amount of resources to annotate the datasets, such as an internal team or a costly third party contract. The amount of capital needed creates a significant barrier for people to implement and deploy state of the art algorithms. Furthermore, relying on large noisy datasets can introduce unwanted bias into the model that is hard to control. Programmable data offers a new paradigm where data can become as accessible and interpretable as coding. In the future, we hope to release our simulator, Simnet, to further promote accessibility. We are currently conducting alpha testing within TRI.

Acknowledgments

We thank Jeremy Ma for his help with collecting validation data in homes. We additionally thank Mark Tjersland and Krishna Shankar for their insights into learned stereo and sharing code. We finally thank the ML and Manipulation teams at TRI for their insightful feedback along the way.

References

  1. Tremblay, Jonathan, et al. “Training deep networks with synthetic data: Bridging the reality gap by domain randomization.” Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition Workshops. 2018.
  2. Zhou, Xingyi, Dequan Wang, and Philipp Krähenbühl. “Objects as points.” arXiv preprint arXiv:1904.07850 (2019).
  3. Mahler, Jeffrey, et al. “Dex-net 2.0: Deep learning to plan robust grasps with synthetic point clouds and analytic grasp metrics.” arXiv preprint arXiv:1703.09312 (2017).
  4. Mayer, Nikolaus, et al. “A large dataset to train convolutional networks for disparity, optical flow, and scene flow estimation.” Proceedings of the IEEE conference on computer vision and pattern recognition. 2016.
  5. Howard, Andrew G., et al. “Mobilenets: Efficient convolutional neural networks for mobile vision applications.” arXiv preprint arXiv:1704.04861 (2017).
  6. Chang, A. X., Funkhouser, T., Guibas, L., Hanrahan, P., Huang, Q., Li, Z., … & Yu, F. (2015). Shapenet: An information-rich 3d model repository. arXiv preprint arXiv:1512.03012.
  7. Geiger, Andreas, et al. “Vision meets robotics: The kitti dataset.” The International Journal of Robotics Research 32.11 (2013): 1231–1237.
  8. Prakash, Aayush, et al. “Structured domain randomization: Bridging the reality gap by context-aware synthetic data.” 2019 International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA). IEEE, 2019
  9. Mayer, Nikolaus, et al. “What makes good synthetic training data for learning disparity and optical flow estimation?.” International Journal of Computer Vision 126.9 (2018): 942–960.
  10. Xie, Christopher, et al. “The best of both modes: Separately leveraging rgb and depth for unseen object instance segmentation.” Conference on robot learning. PMLR, 2020
  11. Bajracharya, Max, et al. “A mobile manipulation system for one-shot teaching of complex tasks in homes.” 2020 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA). IEEE, 2020.

--

--

--

Subsidiary of Toyota with a mission to improve the quality of human life through advances in Human-Centric AI, Robotics, Energy & Materials, & Machine Learning.

Recommended from Medium

The Evolution of AI in Games

The Best of AI: New Articles Published This Month (January 2018)

What are the Social Implications of Humanoid Robots?

Free AI Voice Generator For Your Digital Animation

What Makes Explainable AI So Difficult

Hack The Box :: AI

Searching for artificial intelligence we can trust.

You’d Better Watch Out: The Surveillance State Has a Naughty List, and You’re On It

Get the Medium app

A button that says 'Download on the App Store', and if clicked it will lead you to the iOS App store
A button that says 'Get it on, Google Play', and if clicked it will lead you to the Google Play store
Michael Laskey

Michael Laskey

Advancing Robotic Perception | Research Scientist @ TRI | Ph.D. From UC-Berkeley

More from Medium

Adapting computer vision models for time series and automated EEG review

Publishing and playing pointcloud data from a rosbag

Current state of voice cloning and how you can implement it yourself

Image Segmentation