The report on Polish companies 2021

How many companies are there in Poland for 2022? How many Polish companies were opened and how many were closed in 2021? Learn more about joint-stock companies, limited liability companies, sole proprietorships, and many others from our annual business report on Polish enterprises.

The report on Polish companies 2021

Polish Companies 2021 Business Report — a foreword

In Poland, we can distinguish two general types of companies:

  • companies that are registered in the National Court Register (KRS, Krajowy Rejestr Sądowy);
  • sole proprietorships that are subject to registration in the Central Registration and Information on Business (CEIDG, Centralna Ewidencja Działalności Gospodarczej).

So there are two Polish business registers which separately record and update information about the different economic entities. You can read about it more in our article about company information from Poland that describes closer our Transparent Data API for business.

As for companies, at the beginning of 2022 (January 2022), there are currently active in Poland:

  • over 2.5 million sole proprietorships,
  • over 448 thousand limited liability companies,
  • over 35.7 thousand limited partnerships,
  • over 32.6 thousand general partnerships,
  • over 8.4 thousand joint stock companies,
  • 293 simple joint-stock companies (this is a new legal form that appeared in the Polish National Court Register only in July 2021),
  • over 2.9 thousand limited joint-stock partnerships,
  • over 2.4 thousand partner companies.

In summary, in Poland there are currently over 530,000 companies (enterprises) and 2.5 million sole proprietorships. Ofcourse you might include to ‘companies’ also branches of a foreign entrepreneur, cooperatives or foundations that conduct business activities, and many other legal forms that are not always understood as enterprises. In total, in the Polish National Court Register, KRS, there are currently 670,000 actively operating entities of all types.

Sole proprietorships in Poland in 2021 — new businesses, closings, suspensions and renewals

Sole proprietorships in Poland 2021 — new companies, dissolutions, suspensions, renewals

290.6 thousand — this is how many sole proprietorships were established in Poland in only 2021. This is almost 25,000 more than in 2020. A little more than 163,000 business activities were closed (this is 21,000 more sole proprietorships than in the previous year).

Importantly, in 2021 sole proprietorships were suspended 73% more often than in 2020. Theoretically — due to the peak of the COVID pandemic — 2020 should have been more difficult for business, so those numbers might shock. Last year, entrepreneurs suspended business activities 173,000 times — it’s not little.

When were the most economic activities opened and closed in each month of 2021?

Sole proprietorship in Poland 2021 — opening and closing of companies in months

As you can see in the charts, 2021 was much more “stable” compared to the previous year. New businesses were opened and closed in roughly the same numbers each month.

Limited Liability Companies in Poland in 2021 — openings and closings

Limited liability companies in Poland — new businesses and dissolutions, report 2020–2021

A limited liability company is still the most popular legal form of Polish enterprise in the National Court Register, KRS. At the moment, they account for almost 68% of all business activities registered in the KRS.

In 2021, over 50,000 new limited liability companies were opened in Poland. This is almost 10,000 more than in 2020. 11,500 of this kind of polish companies were closed.

If we look at the chart below, we will notice that most of the Polish limited liability companies (over 5,000) were opened in March and the number began to decline until the end of the year (with some exceptions). As for company closings, most of them were observed at the beginning of 2021, but the changes were not as dynamic as in 2020. It is not surprising that the fewest companies were closed during the holiday season (July, August), which is often related to holidays.

Limited liability companies in Poland — new businesses and dissolutions by months in 2020–2021

Limited partnerships in Poland in 2021 — openings and closings

This report Polish companies 2021 could not ignore the legal form, which was quite loud last year — the limited partnership ceased to be attractive since it was known that a new CIT tax would enter into force in Poland, significantly reducing the profitability of running this type of company. This is clearly visible in the chart below — throughout 2021, only 900 limited partnerships were opened (almost 80% less than in 2020), and as many as 4,297 were closed. Thus, you can observe the withdrawal of Polish entrepreneurs from running a business in the form of a limited partnership.

Limited partnerships in Poland — new businesses and dissolutions, report 2020–2021

For most of 2021, up to 59 limited partnerships were opened monthly. The increase in the number was not recorded until November and December.

As for company closings, the highest number of closed limited partnerships — 508 — was recorded in June. It was certainly related to the entry of CIT from May 2021 for all limited partnerships.

Limited partnerships in Poland — new businesses and dissolutions by months in 2020–2021

General partnerships in Poland in 2021 — openings and closings

In 2021, almost twice as many general partnerships were opened in Poland as in 2020 — a total of 3,000. In turn, only 400 more companies were closed.

General partnerships in Poland — new businesses and dissolutions, report 2020–2021

It is clear that after a slightly worse year, this legal form of running a business is gaining in popularity. It is quite possible that one of the reasons is the less attractive setting up of a limited partnership.

General partnerships in Poland — new businesses and dissolutions by months in 2020–2021

In 2021, most Polish general partnerships were opened in March and April, followed by a quite sharp decline in newly-opened companies with this legal form. On the other hand, when it comes to general partnerships, which were closed in 2021, we did not deal with large fluctuations in the monthly statistics — certainly not as large as in 2020. Most general partnerships ended their business activities in February and December. 156 companies were closed in both of these months.

It is also worth adding that in 2021 there were definitely fewer companies in liquidation — only 61. For comparison, in 2020 this status was held by 112 Polish general partnerships.

Joint stock companies in Poland in 2021 — openings and closings

Join-stock companies in Poland — new businesses and dissolutions, report 2020–2021

Joint-stock companies in Poland are a good example of the fact that the economic crisis is not over. In 2021, fewer businesses of this type were opened than a year earlier (332 joint-stock companies). Moreover, compared to 2020, in 2021 almost 60% more of joint-stock companies ceased their activities (as many as 412).

There are currently almost 8,400 active joint-stock companies in Poland.

From January to June 2021, an increase in newly opened joint-stock companies could be observed. However, from June until the end of the year, this number started to decline drastically. In December 2021, only 4 joint-stock companies were opened — in the same month a year earlier 50 were established.

Joint-stock companies in Poland — new businesses and dissolutions by months in 2020–2021

In January and February, 55 Polish joint-stock companies were closed. Then, a decrease in closings of the number of joint-stock companies was noticed, which changed in June and July 2021. The fewest joint-stock companies, 15, were closed in August 2021. A year earlier, in the same month, only one joint-stock company was closed.

Limited joint-stock partnerships in Poland in 2021 — openings and closings

In 2021, almost as many limited joint-stock partnerships were established in Poland as a year earlier. It is surprising that not many more companies of this type decided to close in 2021. In previous years, the opposite trend could be noticed — more such companies closed their business activities than started.

Limited joint-stock partnerships in Poland — new businesses and dissolutions, report 2020–2021

A limited joint-stock partnership in Poland is rare. There are not even 3,000 such companies.

Limited joint-stock partnerships in Poland — new businesses and dissolutions by months in 2020–2021

The limited liability partnerships in Poland in 2021 — openings and closings

In Poland in 2021 were created 158 limited liability partnership companies. The decision to close was made by slightly more companies compared to 2020, i.e. 80. At the moment, slightly over 2.5 thousand companies of this type are active in Poland.

Limited liability partnerships in Poland — new businesses and dissolutions, report 2020–2021

When it comes to the openings of new limited liability partnership companies in 2021, we were dealing with a sinusoid of increases and decreases in newly opened enterprises, similar to the year before. Most companies of this type were opened at the beginning of the year, after which the number began to gradually decline. In December 2021, only 2 companies were established. In 2020, the largest number of partner companies was opened in the same month, i.e. 25.

Limited liability partnerships in Poland — new businesses and dissolutions by months in 2020–2021

In turn, when it comes to closings of this type Polish companies, the highest number was recorded in June.

Do you need company information on Polish entities?

Check our solutions: https://transparentdata.pl/en/

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