Trieu Vo
Trieu Vo
Nov 17, 2018 · 5 min read

Bond Basics Tutorial
Debt involves borrowing money with the promise to pay it back in full, along with interest over time. Bonds have been around for millennia. The ancient Mesopotamian city of Ur in what’s today Iraq had a bond market around 2400 B.C., guaranteeing repayment for borrowed grain. Kings, and later democratic governments often borrowed by issuing bonds to fund wars and territorial expansion.

In the past, when bonds were issued as paper documents, there would be actual coupons that investors would clip and redeem for their interest payments. Bonds, on the other hand, only pay a pre-determined interest payment and their prices are bound by interest rates, and not by a company’s profitability.

A bond is a fixed income instrument that represents a loan made by an investor to a borrower (typically corporate or governmental). A bond could be thought of as an I.O.U. between the lender and borrower that includes the details of the loan and its payments. A bond has an end date when the principal of the loan is due to be paid to the bond owner and usually includes the terms for variable or fixed interest payments that will be made by the borrower. Bonds are used by companies, municipalities, states, and sovereign governments to finance projects and operations. Owners of bonds are debtholders, or creditors, of the issuer.

The world’s first blockchain-based, the blockbuster mass-market-led publicly-funded bond has been raised to help the World Bank raise $ 110 million, or 80.48 million dollars.

So, bonds are currently handled for companies by banks, sold by banks and bought up by banks and fund managers.

In the first instance, a smart bond built on the blockchain would do away with all of these intermediaries and let a company issue its own bonds directly to buyers.

This can be done in much the same way as initial coin offerings (ICOs) work.

The company simply creates its own token and allows people to buy it directly or allows it to be sold on exchanges.

The big corporations could still buy up these tokens, but everyone else could too.

Not only would this open up a whole new world of buyers for said company, but it would massively cut down on costs too — investment banks don’t come cheap.

Another way smart bonds win out over the current model is because they are programmable.

All the parameters of the bond can be programmed in very, very easily through smart contracts.

These contracts are self-acting. Once set up no one needs to oversee them. They execute on their own.

Crypto is to finance as the internet is to information. Expect to see smart bonds overtake traditional bonds. Watch our money system change as we know it and be ready for it!

How Bonds Work???
The borrowing organization promises to pay the bond back at an agreed-upon date. Until then, the borrower makes agreed-upon interest payments to the bondholder. People hold own bonds are also called creditors or debtholders. In the old days, when people kept paper bonds, they would redeem the interest payments by clipping coupons. Today, this is all done electronically.

Of course, the debtor repays the principal, called the face value, when the bond matures. Most bondholders resell them before they mature at the end of the loan period. That’s because there is a secondary market for bonds. Bonds are either publicly traded on exchanges or sold privately between a broker and the creditor. Since they can be resold, the value of a bond rises and falls until it matures.

What Bonds Tell You About the Economy???
Since bonds return a fixed interest payment, they look attractive when the economy and stock market decline. When the business cycle is contracting or in a recession, bonds are more attractive.

When the stock market is doing well, investors are less interested in purchasing bonds, so their value drops. Borrowers must promise higher interest payments to attract bond purchasers. That makes them counter-cyclical. When the economy is expanding or at its peak, bonds are left behind in the dust.

The average individual investor should not try to time the market. You should never sell all your bonds, even when the market is at its peak. That’s when you should add bonds to your portfolio. That will provide a cushion for the next downturn. A diversified portfolio of bonds, stocks, and hard assets gets you the highest return with the least risk. Hard assets include gold, real estate, and cash.

When the economy contracts, investors will buy bonds and be willing to accept lower yields just to keep their money safe. Those who issue bonds can afford to pay lower interest rates and still sell all the bonds they need. The secondary market will bid up the price of bonds beyond their face values. That means the interest payment is now a lower percentage of the initial price paid. The result? A lower return on the investment, hence a lower yield.

Bonds affect the economy by determining interest rates. Bond investors choose among all the different types of bonds. They compare the risk versus reward offered by interest rates. Lower interest rates on bonds mean lower costs for things you buy on credit. That includes loans for cars, business expansion, or education. Most important, bonds affect mortgage interest rates. Lower mortgage rates mean you can afford a bigger house.

Bonds also affect the stock market. When interest rates rise, stocks look less attractive. They must offer a higher return to compensate for their higher risk.

Like stocks, bonds can be packaged into a bond mutual fund. Many individual investors prefer to let an experienced fund manager pick the best selection of bonds. A bond fund can also reduce risk through diversification. This way, if one entity defaults on its bonds, then only a small part of the investment is lost.

How Twogap exploited Bonds ???

Twogap focuses especially in the Cryptobond market, where its market size now is over $100 trillion. In near future, CryptoBonds will be the biggest scale stop-loss products to save Crypto investors.

In addition, CryptoBonds market also will be a reliable crypto market where investors who have lost their confidence in the crypto market can put the trust in.

So Twogap is now working on crypto bonds because of these things. Twogap not only provides the holder’s right to get profit from the trades, holdings, exchanges but it affords those a greater opportunity in investing in the mining cryptocurrency.

It funds Twogap projects like Twogap fund that is trading investments with fully guaranteed dividends.

Twogap is a digital blockchain-based platform created primarily to provide Crypto Investors with the opportunity to get large and biggest-scale products at no loss.

The platform will assist issuers to conceal the ancient Bonds into common CryptoBonds, which will circulate in the Crypto Market.

Moreover, the platform offers protection to the investors, inflates the market, extends the scale, and creates a pillar of sustainable growth for the Global Crypto Market.

CryptoBonds, from twogap, will be the greatest scale loss-breaker items to spare Crypto speculators.

Likewise, CryptoBonds showcase additionally will be a solid crypto advertise where financial specialists who have lost their trust in the crypto market can put the trust in.


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Thriving Crypto Market by Cross-Exchanges and Crypto-Securities

Trieu Vo

Written by

Trieu Vo

Motion Graphics / Designer



Thriving Crypto Market by Cross-Exchanges and Crypto-Securities

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