Protecting Our Roots

How Conservation Helps Fill in the Gaps of History

aerial map with white outline of refuge  land and orange rectangle with white tag saying Benn Ross Site
aerial map with white outline of refuge  land and orange rectangle with white tag saying Benn Ross Site
Map of the new Peter’s Neck Unit and where Ben Ross’ land is believed to be.

In October 2020, after years of negotiations, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service partnered with The Conservation Fund to acquire an additional 2,691 acres of forested wetlands to be added to Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge. The parcel will provide essential habitat for migrating shorebirds, waterfowl, and other native species. Wildlife aren’t the only ones, however, that benefit from the riches of these lands. Beneath the soil there are deep historic roots that may help us piece together previously untold stories.

For years, Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge has worked alongside the Harriet Tubman Underground Railroad State Park and Harriet Tubman Underground Railroad National Historical Park, preserving the landscape associated with Harriet Tubman’s childhood. The newly acquired lands, formerly managed for forests and hunting, have been on their radar for nearly 20 years. Based on previously gathered historical deeds, court, birth, and census records, the partnership believes that within those 2,691 acres are the 10 acres Harriet Tubman’s father, Ben Ross, received when released from slavery.

“Whether or not it’s the land that Ben Ross owned, there’s a story to be told there,” says Chesapeake Marshlands National Wildlife Refuge Complex Leader Marcia Pradines. “We know this is the place where she grew up, where she learned about surviving on the land.”

waterfowl in and over water with marshy shores
waterfowl in and over water with marshy shores
The water at Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge is crowded with waterfowl early in the morning. Photo by USFWS

The property has undergone a remarkable transformation and today looks far different from the landscape Tubman would have known. What were once irrigation ditches now gather water as the land is threatened by sea-level rise.

The ever-rising waters are largely the motivation behind the land acquisition.

“The reason why this land is so important, strictly from a habitat perspective, is that it will be at least partially marsh by 2100,” Pradines says.

The saturated site houses flourishing ecosystems teeming with wetland wildlife. Although ideal for migrating waterfowl, this swampy terrain is a hazard to researchers. As the water rises, so too does a sense of urgency. Refuge staff and partners now race against the clock as water threatens to wash away pieces of history.

Extracting the past is a task that takes extraordinary care.

“As an organization, we are largely pretty light on the landscape so there exists potential for a great number of breakthroughs,” says our Regional Historic Preservation Officer Amy Wood “Not excavating is always our first option. In archaeology, once we start to remove anything, information is lost. That’s why we get so upset when there’s damage done to a dig site. It’s not just the items, it’s the context in which you find them. If you damage the area you automatically lose 50 percent of the information.”

The longer they wait, the more of this land erodes. If artifacts aren’t lost to the erosion that 50 percent, the contextual information, will be.

Brown sign in woods reading Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge/ U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service/ Department of the Interior/Area X/Peters Neck
Brown sign in woods reading Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge/ U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service/ Department of the Interior/Area X/Peters Neck
Signage at the new posted parcel. Photo by USFWS

Once the parcel officially became Service property, refuge leadership sprang into action, completing the necessary paperwork and ensuring archaeological exploration was appropriate for their management goals. The team avoided habitat disturbance by digging the initial 700 pits along existing 200-year-old roads that will one day be converted into a public use trail system.

As shared public lands, maintenance staff worked tirelessly, says Pradines, improving roads, posting signage, and creating parking spaces not only for hunters but for researchers as well, ensuring everyone would have safe access to their designated areas.

The archaeological team, provided by the Maryland Department of Transportation and led by chief archaeologist Julie Schablitsky, included biographers, students, and historians. For two weeks, the team sifted through the muddy, unforgiving landscape. They unearthed several compelling artifacts, including shards of ceramic dishes and an 1808 coin. With the threat of sea-level rise only steps behind them, the archaeological team plans to continue the search for the Ross cabin, returning to Blackwater Refuge this spring.

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At left, an archaeologist sifts through the mud for artifacts. Photo by Ray Paterra/USFWS | At right, a wet lane at Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge. Photo by USFWS

Though they may seem small, a simple coin or a piece of clay may be invaluable historical clues. By piecing together similar shards of history, we can learn a lot about our ancestors including what materials they used to build their homes, what they did for work, what they did for pleasure, and overall how they lived. We can even track the movements of people across the greater landscape. For example if we find a tool only manufactured in Ohio buried in a swamp in Virginia, we get a better understanding of who was traveling where.

Even the wildlife holds clues that help us fill in the gaps of history. Crops that were planted, new animals introduced to an area, all of this can be discovered when we study the land.

The land holds scars, evidence of the interactions between people of the past and the habitat that they occupied. For that reason, land conservation and historical resource conservation are intrinsically linked. When we preserve these habitats, we are inevitably preserving stories. By reading these landscapes, we discover more about people like Harriet Tubman whose stories are interwoven in and deeply connected to the land.

Through their continued archaeological research, the team hopes to discover more about Harriet Tubman’s upbringing. These are the places where she learned the necessary skill to emancipate over 70 enslaved people. Under these stars she learned to navigate. In these forests she learned how to traverse the wilderness, find food to sustain herself, and hide among the trees. These spaces, as much as the people around her, helped raise her into the leader she would eventually become.

view of river through trees, green grass
view of river through trees, green grass
A view of Blackwater River from the newly acquired lands. Photo by USFWS

As a society, we predominantly study history from written accounts. In doing so, however, we ignore the rich histories of people whose stories may have never reached the page. Enslaved people were largely illiterate, forcibly kept from written language by slave masters who sought to deprive them of education in order to avoid potential uprisings.

By preserving historical sites we help ensure that these stories will not be forgotten. The physical evidence on the land gives us greater insight specifically into the lives of people whose stories have never been documented.

The cultural significance of land, however, is not simply determined by what we find on it. When we hold spaces, even those that were once sites of trauma, we create space for healing and unity. By recognizing the significance of certain locations we provide an opportunity for people of all backgrounds to gather and acknowledge both the painful and triumphant moments that occurred there.

In honoring these stories we recognize the significance of histories unwritten. We ensure true stories are told and uphold collective memory, painting a fuller picture of American history. These locations provide the roots. They give us an opportunity to grow, something that can only be accomplished if we recognize what we once were and where we need to grow from.

person in yellow jacket on footbridge looks at river
person in yellow jacket on footbridge looks at river
A visitor looks out over Stewart’s Canal at Harriet Tubman Underground Railroad National Historic Park at dusk. Photo by NPS

Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge seeks to honor this historic location by working alongside the Harriet Tubman Underground Railroad State Park and Harriet Tubman Underground Railroad National Historic Park to develop interpretive trails. As a land management organization, the Service must balance the needs of wildlife with the needs of the public and so the parcel will be appropriately divided for outdoor recreation including hiking, birding, hunting, and fishing.

The refuge hopes that by telling this history they can attract the attention of new visitors.

“I think there’s a certain interest out there and folks typically are drawn to national parks for history, but we have our own set of history to offer,” says Historic Preservation Officer Wood. “Our unique piece is once you come for the history you’ll end up learning more about conservation.”

By Sydney Giuliano, External Affairs, North Atlantic-Appalachian Region

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

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We’re dedicated to the conservation, protection and enhancement of fish, wildlife and plants, and their habitats.

Updates from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is working with others to conserve, protect, and enhance fish, wildlife, plants, and their habitats for the continuing benefit of the American people.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

Written by

We’re dedicated to the conservation, protection and enhancement of fish, wildlife and plants, and their habitats.

Updates from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is working with others to conserve, protect, and enhance fish, wildlife, plants, and their habitats for the continuing benefit of the American people.

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