All The Fish

Spiciest Trout in the West

Get to know the cutthroat family

If variety is truly the spice of life, then cutthroat trout — known best for a splash of red on their lower jaw — are pretty spicy (so are rainbow trout).

A trout with a pink cheek and red marking under its jaw
A Bear River cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii Utah). 📷 Courtesy of Anastasia and Tyler Coleman

With over a dozen recognized subspecies representing four major evolutionary/geographical groups, these trout vary wildly in size and looks. Some common Oncorhynchus ancestor likely migrated along the Pacific Coast and followed rivers deep into what is now the western United States 3–5 million years ago. The ebb and flow of glaciers fractured and isolated populations, resulting in that variation we see today.

coastal cutthroat trout in the water
A coastal cutthroat trout from Southeast Alaska (O. c. clarkii). 📷 Mark Heironymus

Pacific Coast Subspecies

From as far northwest as Alaska’s Kenai Peninsula all the way south along the Pacific Coast to northern California’s Eel River, you can find coastal cutthroat trout (O. c. clarkii). This subspecies is rarely found more than 100 miles from the coast and comes in both resident forms that stay in freshwater and sea-run forms that venture into the marine environment. If you’re fishing for Cutthroat Trout in Alaska, this is the subspecies you’ll be targeting (Listen to episode 11 of Fish of the Week! to learn more about Alaska’s Coastal Cuts). If you find yourself in Washington, there is even a unique population of coastal cuts endemic to Lake Crescent (O. c. crescenti).

Great Basin Subspecies

This region was shaped by two major late Pleistocene lakes: Lake Lahontan and Lake Bonneville — and there are two subspecies that share the namesake: the Lahontan cutthroat trout (O. c. henshawi) and Bonneville cutthroat trout (O. c. Utah). These are the state fish of Nevada and Utah, respectively. Lahontans are the largest member of the cutthroats, with lake-dwellers reaching upwards of 40 pounds.

A Pyramid Lake Lahontan cutthroat trout (O. c. henshawi). 📷 USFWS

Did you know? The Lahontan cutthroat trout is listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act.

a brownish spotted trout in a woman’s hands
A Bonneville cutthroat trout (also O. c. Utah). 📷 Courtesy of Anastasia and Tyler Coleman

The state of Utah also recognizes the Bear River cutthroat trout (O. c. Utah as well) — and the lake-dwelling morph is the Bear Lake cutthroat trout (sometimes called a bluenose trout).

A big trout held half in the water
A Bear Lake cutthroat trout. 📷 Courtesy of Anastasia and Tyler Coleman

The Great Basin spans nearly all of Nevada, much of Oregon and Utah, and portions of California, Idaho, Wyoming. It’s also home to the Humbolt cutthroat trout (O. c. humboldtensis), as well as the Paiute cutthroat trout (O. c. seleniris) which is endemic to the eastern Sierra Nevada Mountains. The Willow-Whitehorse Basin cutthroat trout is considered by some to be a distinct population segment of either the Lahontan or Humboldt subspecies. Alvord cutthroat trout (O. c. alvordensis), once endemic to the tributaries of Oregon’s Alvord Lake, is now considered extinct.

Did you know? The Paiute cutthroat trout is federally listed as threatened.

Subspecies of the Southern Rockies

Cutthroat trout are also found throughout the cold waters of the Rocky Mountains. The Colorado River cutthroat trout (O. c. pleuriticus) is found in the tributaries of the Green and Colorado rivers, while the Rio Grande cutthroat trout (O. c. virginalis) occurs in New Mexico and southern Colorado. The Rio Grande Cutthroat is New Mexico’s state fish.

a trout with a red cheek in someone’s hand
A Colorado River cutthroat trout. 📷 Courtesy of Anastasia and Tyler Coleman

The Greenback cutthroat trout (O. c. stomias) is the easternmost subspecies of Oncorhynchus clarkii. It’s found in Arkansas and the headwaters of the South Platt River on the eastern slopes of the Colorado Rocky Mountains — it’s the official state fish of Colorado. The Yellowfin cutthroat trout (O. c. macdonaldi), which was found to be distinct from the Greenback cut in the late 1800s, is now extinct.

Did you know? Greenback cutthroat trout are listed as threatened as well.

Subspecies of the Northern Rockies

In the northern stretches of the Rocky Mountains, you’ll find the Westslope cutthroat trout (O. c. lewisi), which is native to northern Idaho, Montana, British Columbia and Alberta. It’s also called the blackspotted trout and is Montana’s state fish.

A yellow toned trout in a net
Westslope cutthroat trout. 📷 Courtesy of Anastasia and Tyler Coleman

Yellowstone cutthroat trout (O.c. bouvieri) are native to upper Snake River, Yellowstone Lake and Yellowstone River and can be found in Idaho, Montana and Wyoming.

A trout half in the water in someone’s hand
Yellowstone cutthroat trout. 📷 Courtesy of Anastasia and Tyler Coleman

The Snake River fine-spotted cutthroat trout (O. c. behnkei) is considered by some to be a unique population of Yellowstone cuts.

A trout held above a net with a lot of spots
A Snake River Fine spot (O. c. behnkei). 📷 Courtesy of Anastasia and Tyler Coleman

Did you know? The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service raises cutthroat trout subspecies for conservation purposes at the Jones Hole, Leadville, Norfork, Saratoga, Wolf Creek, Creston, and Jackson National Fish Hatcheries, as well as the Lahonton National Fish Hatchery Complex.

Learn More

Western Native Trout Initiative. This Fish Habitat Partnership works collaboratively across 12 western states to protect, restore, and recover 21 native trout and char species.

Fish of the Week! Join us every Monday to get to know all the fish — how they make a living, what habitats they use, what they eat, and where they go and why. Everything you need to know to appreciate and conserve these fish and be a successful angler. This year we are focused primarily on species found in Alaska.

Compiled by Katrina Liebich, Digital Media Manager for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s External Affairs in Alaska.

As the Service reflects on 150 years of fisheries conservation, we honor, thank, and celebrate the whole community — individuals, Tribes, the State of Alaska, sister agencies, fish enthusiasts, scientists, and others — who have elevated our understanding and love, as people and professionals, of all the fish.

In Alaska we are shared stewards of world renowned natural resources and our nation’s last true wild places. Our hope is that each generation has the opportunity to live with, live from, discover and enjoy the wildness of this awe-inspiring land and the people who love and depend on it.

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U.S.Fish&Wildlife Alaska

U.S.Fish&Wildlife Alaska

Stories from Alaska by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service