The Value Proposition Canvas for Product Managers

Rohit Verma


The Value Proposition Canvas was introduced by Dr. Alexander Osterwalder based on his earlier work, the Business Model Canvas. The VPC was specifically designed to zoom into the ‘value proposition’ and ‘customer segment’ blocks of the Business Model Canvas, providing a detailed look at how products or services align with customer needs.

It was first detailed in Osterwalder’s book, “Value Proposition Design”, co-authored with Yves Pigneur, Alan Smith, and Gregory Bernarda. The model quickly gained popularity for its straightforward approach to examining the fit between what a business offers and what the market desires.

Understanding the Value Proposition Canvas Model

The Value Proposition Canvas (VPC) is a strategic tool that helps organizations align their products or services with the specific needs and desires of their customers. Essentially, it is a detailed breakdown that connects what a product offers to what the customer actually wants. Let’s explore the components of the VPC and how they interlink to form a cohesive model.

Components of the Value Proposition Canvas

The VPC consists of two major sections: the Customer Profile and the Value Map. Each section is designed to capture essential elements that product managers need to address to ensure a product meets and exceeds customer expectations.

  1. Customer Profile:
  • Customer Jobs: This part describes what the customers are trying to get done in their work and lives. It includes functional jobs (tasks they need to perform), social jobs (how they want to be perceived by others), and emotional jobs (how they want to feel).
  • Pains: These are the negative experiences, emotions, or risks that customers face when trying to accomplish their jobs.
  • Gains: These represent the outcomes and benefits that customers desire. Gains describe what customers hope to achieve, including must-have utility, performance improvements, and social gains.

2. Value Map:

  • Products and Services: A list of the products and services the company offers that help customers complete their jobs or relieve pains and create gains.
  • Pain Relievers: These explicitly outline how the product alleviates specific customer pains, making it easier or more satisfying for the customer to get their jobs done.
  • Gain Creators: These detail how the product enhances customer gains, providing benefits and value that surpass basic needs and contribute to the enhancement of the customer’s situation.

How the Model Works

The beauty of the VPC lies in its simplicity and focus. It starts by encouraging an in-depth understanding of the customer. This understanding is critical because it shapes how product features are designed, marketed, and sold. Product managers use the Customer Profile to map out specific details about the customer’s environment, what they need, and what obstacles they face. This section is about empathy and truly getting into the customer’s shoes.

The Value Map is then used to align the product’s features with the customer’s jobs, pains, and gains. The aim is to create a fit between what the customer needs (the profile) and what the product offers (the value map). When the components of the value map directly address the components of the customer profile, the product is more likely to be successful.

Practical Application

Using the VPC, a product manager can visually map out and test how well a product’s offerings match up with customer expectations and needs. It provides a clear structure for identifying mismatches between the product and the market, and it helps prioritize development and marketing efforts based on what will bring the most value to customers. The tool is also instrumental in brainstorming new product ideas, refining existing products, or even deciding when to pivot away from products that do not effectively meet market needs.

Pros and Cons of the Value Proposition Canvas


  • Customer-focused design: The VPC encourages an outside-in approach to product design, ensuring products are built around customer needs and problems.
  • Clarity and simplicity: It simplifies complex business propositions into easily understandable chunks, helping teams align on the product strategy.
  • Facilitates experimentation: By mapping out hypotheses about customer needs and value propositions, teams can more effectively design experiments and validate assumptions.
  • Improves communication: Provides a visual dialogue tool that enhances understanding and cooperation across different functions of an organization.


  • Over-simplification: Some critics argue that the VPC might oversimplify the complexities of customer relationships and market dynamics.
  • Requires accurate customer insights: The effectiveness of the canvas depends heavily on the accuracy and depth of customer insights gathered, which can sometimes be challenging.
  • Static snapshot: The VPC provides a snapshot in time and may not adequately capture evolving customer needs or competitive dynamics unless regularly updated.

Building on the Value Proposition Canvas

Product managers can extend the basic applications of the VPC by integrating it with other strategic tools such as:

  • Lean Canvas: To focus on operational and logistical aspects once the value proposition is clear.
  • SWOT Analysis: To evaluate strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats in relation to the VPC findings.
  • Customer Journey Mapping: To understand the customer experience thoroughly and identify key touchpoints for delivering the value proposition.

Next Steps for Implementation

  1. Workshop Facilitation: Organize workshops with cross-functional teams to fill out the VPC, ensuring diverse perspectives are included.
  2. Customer Validation: Use customer interviews, surveys, and prototype testing to validate the assumptions made in the VPC.
  3. Iterative Refinement: Regularly revisit and update the VPC based on customer feedback and market changes.
  4. Integration into Roadmaps: Incorporate insights from the VPC into product roadmaps and strategic planning documents.

Let’s wrap it!

The Value Proposition Canvas is an indispensable tool for product managers focused on delivering products that precisely meet the needs of their customers. By systematically breaking down the customer profile and the product’s value map, the VPC facilitates a deeper understanding of the market and helps ensure that a product is as relevant and valuable as possible. This alignment is crucial not only for product success but also for building long-term customer loyalty and competitive advantage.

Thanks for reading! If you’ve got ideas to contribute to this conversation please comment. If you like what you read and want to see more, clap me some love! Follow me here, or connect with me on LinkedIn or Twitter.
Do check out my latest Product Management resources.



Rohit Verma
Writer for

Senior Product Manager @AngelOne, ex-@Flipkart, @Cleartrip @IIM Bangalore.