University of Vermont Italian Herbal — list of illustrations

The University of Vermont Library owns an Italian herbal written in 1475 ca. It is variously referred to as “MS 2” or “TR F Herbal”.

Complete scans of the manuscript are available here:
http://cdi.uvm.edu/book/uvmcdi-55290

Erba Luparia Maggiore

The following list of plant illustrations includes these data:

  • The number of the digital image
  • Numeration written on the pages
  • The symbol [T] marks the presence of a descriptive text
  • The transcription of (some of) the names given for the plant
  • Tentative identification of the plant
  • The notes in parentheses comment on various aspects, including the possible connection with one of the 98 plants making part of the so called “alchemical herbal” tradition

For the plants that appear to be connected with the “alchemical herbal”, I have used the identification proposed by Vera Segre Rutz in “Il Giardino Magico degli Alchimisti”.

Edit: Rene Zandbergen has shared with me some notes about this manuscript, in particular pointing out more parallels with the Alchemical Herbal and the Tractatus de Herbis. I have added them to the plant descriptions, marked with “RZ”. J.K.Petersen has corrected the identification of Dictamnus Albus (img.4).


001, — [T] Cholixoge, chavolo cabbage

002, 3 [T] Umbilicus veneris umbilicus rupestris

002, 3 [T] Erba Sancti Cristoforis vel pelosella hieracium pilosella

002, 3 [T] Herba Lupina Montana / Brancha Montana helleborus niger (ALC29 Herba Brancha lupina)

003, 4 [T] Branca leonina magiore alchemilla

003, 4 [T] Cavolo magiore vel fava inversa anagyris foetida (two devils)

004, 5 [T] Dictamo dictamnus albus [plant ID by J.K.Petersen] (dragon with naked man — Servio’s commentary of Virgil, Dioscorides, Alberto Magno, Solino, Plinio, Circa Instans cited)

005, 6 [T] Viola violet

006, 5 [T] Sanctoreggia, timbra savory

006, 5 Purpurea digitalis purpurea

007, 8 [T] Fumusterre, siserisse fumaria officinalis (two naked men with an angel — Avicenna cited)

008, 9 [T] Aridion, aridion minore erigeron annuus ?? (two versions of the plant, possibly different plants)

009, 10 [T] Fegatella vel epaticha hepatica

009, 10 [T] Lingua cervina, scolopendria, scorpia phyllitis scolopendrium (three different versions: alio modo in alio libro — RZ: ALC17 Herba Lingua cornena )

010, 11 -blank-

011, 12 [T] Villaries ??? (naked man wounded by a snake, angel pointing to the plant)

011, 12 [T] Lilio montano lilium martagon

012, 13 [T] Herba luccia terza vel capo duomo ???

012, 13 [T] Mula campana elecampane (second version ‘in alio libro’ — defecating naked man)

013, 14 [T] Pinestrella, fruncichola, pinaria ???

013, 14 [T] Peodion maggiore ???

014, 15 [T] Casaria / cosaria? genista tinctoria ? (person wounded by a snake)

014, 15 [T] Rossella ???

015, 16 [T] Querciola biancha teucrium chamaedrys (Cancer — naked man holding a snake and a leaf)

015, 16 [T] Trifolium maggiore trifolium? (second version ‘in alio libro’)

015, 16 [T] Scorza lazari ???

016, 15 [T] Astrologia minore aristolochia

016, 15 [T] Aristrologia lungha aristolochia?

016, 15 [T] Aristologia ritonda aristolochia?

017, 18 [T] Amomen, sasifraca saxifraga (Giove)

017, 18 [T] Borbogia, colombaria vervain — verbena officinalis (view of Pistoia? — drinking man)

018, 19 [T] Valitaria, volarina? taraxacum officinale (Taurus)

018, 19 [T] Ermole reges ??? (large blue flower, angel, urinating man)

019, 20 [T] Rafano raphanus (two men fighting with scorpion, snake and dragon — landscape with tower)

020, 21 [T] Brionia, bryonia bryony (Taurus)

020, 21 [T] Calendaria terza vel pedicalaria delphinium staphisagria

021, 22 [T] Brancha ursina heracleum / hogweed

021, 22 [T] Redigreto, lucidaria montana lunaria??

022, — [T] Imorio chiarissimo ??? (Mercurio — color annotations ‘rossa’ in the leaves and root)

022, — [T] Nevida montana vle calipirnos ??? (Cancer)

023, 24 [T] Pastinacha pastinaca / parsnip (naked woman with small child)

024, 25 [T] Luccia maggiore rhamnus saxatilis? (Scorpio — ALC34 Herba Lucea — fish-shaped zoomorphic roots)

025, 26 — genealogical tree

026, 26 [T] Sanguinaria, poligonia polygonum bistorta?

026, 26 [T] Sinfizacha, stafizaca ???

027, 27 [T] Loncino, piantagine plantago / plantain (naked person wounded by a snake)

027, 27 [T] Ypericon vel perforata hypericum (lying man with devil — three drawings of the plant)

028, 29 [T] Cadrina maggiore ???

028, 29 [T] Luparia maggiore aconitum vulparia (ALC29 ? Herba Brancha lupina — wolf-shaped zoomorphic root)

029, 28 [T] Eufragia vel luminella euphrasia / eyebright? (ALC76?)

029, 28 [T] Filius ante pater vel cordafila tussilago farfara

030, ? [T] Amphodilli asphodelus (Aries et Saturnus)

030, ? [T] Stella vel stellaria stellaria media (Aries et Taurus — two illustrations)

030, ? Corella martagon / lunaria lilium martagon

031, 33 [T] Valleriano montanino valerian (Maschio / femina — kneel woman — fragment of a plant on the left)

031, 33 [T] Rosina ??? (two versions — unpainted, barred drawing of bird)

032, 34 [T] Consolida maggiore symphytum officinale (ALC97 Herba Consolida mayor — man on stool, naked man with snake)

032, 34 [T] Brettonicha stachys officinalis / betony (ALC07 mating snakes — two versions — herba di Saturno)

033, 34 [T] Lunaria maschio / femina ??? (ALC69 ALC79 — Aquarius)

033, 34 [T] Lunaria alpestra ??? (‘mountain’ lunaria)

033, 34 Lunaria prima, seconda, terza, greca ??? (Taurus)

034, 37 [T] Polmonaria pulmonaria / lungwort

034, 37 [T] Capo canino ??? (angel and woman — zoomorphic dog’s head root)

035, 38 Matrone maschio / femina matricaria? / herba matronae (number 194 — no text)

036, 39 [T] Grana maggiore strawberry? erysimum officinale? (old man with angel)

036, 39 [T] Silex montano laserpitium siler (bird, maybe eagle)

037, 40 [T] Bisaria? visaria? vel afaricha / lucia minore arum dracunculus? (ALC34, kneeling man — anthropomorphic flower)

037, 40 [T] Celidonia chelidonium / greater celandine

038, 41 [T] Strafisagra delphinium staphisagria

038, 41 Dittamo dictamnus (alternative image in alio libro — naked woman with snake)

039, 41 -blank-

040, 42 [T] Semperviva sempervivum (three different versions)

041, 43 [T] Lingua hyrcina cynoglossum officinale

041, 43 Pissericon?, verbena vervain?

041, 43 Volubilis minor convolvolus / bindweed

042, 44 [T] Ramignana, pagana, alleuria solidago virgaurea

042, 44 [T] Trifolio, acetola minore / maggiore, alleluia oxalis acetosella (two versions)

043, 45 [T] Sassifrica saxifraga (Circa Instans — in alio libro — man eating plant)

044, 46 [T] Arnoglossa, bietola salvaticha plantago maritima? (Macrone cited — two illustrations)

045, 46 — (no illustration — saxifraga? in a later hand)

046, 48 [T] Corona regis vel meliloto melilotus officinalis (Sagictario — sagittarius)

046, 48 [T] Vriola vel mazereon vel alipidos daphne mezereum (Sagictario — naked man picking leaves)

047, 48 [T] Aristologia rotunda aristolochia? (naked woman with snake — encrypted annotation)

047, 48 [T] Prosona? vel dardania ??? (dog biting naked man)

048, 49 [T] Enula ortolana, campana elecampane (Paulo Greco cited)

049, 50 [T] Piretro pyrethrum (lying man with angel)

049, 50 [T] Yrios vel ghiaggiuolo iris

050, 51 [T] Muscata geranium moschatum / erodium moschatum (in alio libro)

050, 51 [T] Baccara vel assaru asarum europaeum (Leone — in alio libro)

051, ? [T] Luccia minore ??? (delle nove ragioni una)

051, ? Ditta dictamnus albus?

051, ? [T] Ruta silvestris sive andrea ruta montana (in alio libro — RZ: ALC65 Herba Rucha salvaticha)

052, 54 [T] Gentiana vel adudardiana gentiana lutea (Gemini — in alio libro)

052, 54 [T] Bistorta barba rossa bistorta officinalis / bistort (Capricorno — in alio libro)

053, 55 -no illustrations-

054, 57 [T] Piombiria monana ??? (Libra)

054, 57 [T] Viperina echium vulgare / viper’s bugloss (city view — man with snake)

055, 58 [T] Consolida magano? symphytum officinale?

055, 58 [T] Consolida minore vel morello solanum nigrum / black nightshade??

056, ? -no illustrations-

057, 59 [T] Elleboro biancho hellebore (woman offering the plant? to a person in bed)

058, ? -no illustrations-

059, 60 [T] Abruotano artemisia abrotanum

059, 60 [T] Buglossa vel lingua bovina anchusa officinalis / bugloss (well painted leaves in two shades of green)

060, 62 [T] Radice ??? (Alberto Magno cited — color annotation ‘tucte fogle xeli’)

060, 62 [T] Anomen vel saxefraga saxifraga? (Giove — color annotation ‘fogle xelj’ / yellow leaves)

061, 61 -no illustrations-

062, 63 Arundina festuca arundinacea?

062, 63 [T] Cantralis vel cantrahs coronilla???

062, 63 Controsanas ???

062, 63 Gus ut lingua cervina phyllitis scolopendrium?

063, 64 [T] Pes colombino vel asmon geranium columbinum (RZ: Tractatus De Herbis — Sloane 4016 f. 72v )

064, 66 [T] Eupatorio maggiore eupatorium (Scorpio — color annotation ‘fogle xlj’ / yellow leaves)

064, 66 [T] Eupatorio terzo eupatorium (color annotation ‘fogle xlj’ / yellow leaves)

064, 66 [T] Vetriuola minore parietaria officinalis (color annotation ‘fogle verdi’ / green leaves)

065, 67 [T] Borrage borage

065, 67 Olitis? oliris? osyris alba??

066, 68 [T] Elleboro nero helleborus niger

066, 68 Elleboro nero helleborus niger

067, — -no illustrations-

068, 69 [T] Polipodio quercino polypodium vulgare (enema scene in a landscape with church, labeled ‘Argometho’ / subject)

069, 70 [T] Ezenacha, fegatella, rugginella asplenium trichomanes

069, 70 [T] Filopodio phyllopodium (man with horse in a landscape with towers)

070, 72 [T] Alio hursis allium ursinum (RZ: ALC41 Herba Illioris)

070, 72 [T] Rischola riscola — ricola? tragopogon?

071, 97 77 [T] Angales plantago major (ALC13 Angalles — color annotation ‘verde la foglia’ / green leaf)

071, 97 77 [T] Istamitia vel chaccia demoni hypericum perforatum / st john’s-wort (color annotation)

072, 72 -no illustrations-

073, 98 [T] Mandracora femina mandrake (kneeling woman with angel and scorpion — anthropomorphic root with dog)

074, ? [T] — male mandrake (kneeling man with angel — staff with bags)

075, 76 [T] Tios amoroxa aquilegia vulgaris?? (related with the ‘alchemical’ a morso serpentis?)

075, 76 [T] Alogrias vel alocarias a kind of garlic (alio)?? (RZ: ALC37 Herba Illocharias)

076, 77 [T] Sabastrella vel larisubila? sanguisorba officinalis (ALC31 Herba Sabastrella)

076, 77 [T] Houola ???

076, 77 [T] Conflexuarias ???

077, 108 78 [T] Asmarino camorino rosemary?? (well painted)

078, 79 [T] Cavalarchas romana eupatorium cannabium?? (ALC09 Canalaritas romana)

078, 79 [T] Antolla aconitum anthora (ALC24 Herba Antollas )

079, 80 Attolla? ???

079, 80 [T] Brulocho vel beredaero ???

080, 81 [T] Atasacas vel guliomas ???

080, 81 [T] Brancha dagona? ???

081, 82 [T] Giengiono ginger (grows in India — spell with crosses)

082, 83 Protea ???

082, 83 Immolos ???

082, 83 Granaton djasedon vel cardus benedictus cnicus benedictus / st. benedict’s thistle

082, 83 Brancha / oleosa? ??? (RZ: ALC67 Herba Brancha)

083, 84 Patristas vel gualazina ???

083, 84 Cicharo cistus

084, 85 [T] Reobarbaro rheum

085, 86 [T] Angalos plantago major (ALC13 Angalles)

085, 86 Cesana ???

086, 87 [T] Santione magiore gladiolus

086, 87 [T] Itolas? ???

087, 88 [T] Luminella euphrasia / eyebright? (ALC76 Herba Luminellas)

087, 88 [T] Atula luparias ranunculus acer or aconitum lycoctonum?? (ALC25 Herba Antolla lupanas)

088, 89 [T] Rena apsona imperatoria ostruthium / masterwort (ALC10 Herba Rena — cylindrical ‘hollow’ root)

089, 90 [T] Dachia ??? (in alio libro — ‘alchemical’ in stile — red section root — RZ: ALC15 Herba Grantia)

089, 90 Trementilla potentilla erecta / tormentilla (Lotafilos Plinius dixit — two versions)

089, 90 Curnen (cumen?) sive resapion cumin??

090, 91 [T] Polismax, polesmes, polorimas ruscus aculeatus? (ALC62 Herba Polexinas?)

090, 91 Horigano origanum vulgare

090, 91 [T] Sancta maria menta viridis?? (ALC55 Herba Sancta Maria)

090, 91 [T] Bolgeilis, boletolis ??? (RZ: ALC59 Herba Belletollis)

091, 92 Victoria allium victorialis (ALC88 Herba Victoria)

091, 92 Lampatium acuto, romice lapathum acutum / rumex obtusifolius

091, 92 [T] Albero che fa leuforbio euphorbia?

092, 25 94 Gilosia amaranthus tricolor — merrifield: original treatises

092, 25 94 Lingua pagana ruscus hypoglossum

092, 25 94 [T] Robbia da tintori rubia tinctorum / common madder

092, 25 94 Daucisi daucus carota / wild carrot

093, 96 Cindonia cydonia oblonga??

094, 77 97 [T] Arteticha ajuga chamaepitys (four variants)

094, 77 97 [T] Geu, rompe sasso, frange sasso crithmum maritimum / sea fennel

095, — [T] Sopraggine helminthotheca echioides / bristly oxtongue

096, 99 [T] Giovino ???

097, 79 99 Unpainted, upside-down plant

098, 100 [T] Cipero cyperus

098, 100 Lilio lilium / lily

098, 100 Berbena vervain — verbena officinalis

098, 100 Ermo dattolo hermodactylus / iris tuberosa

099, 101 Latucha lettuce (anthropomorphic root)

099, 101 Ariella ???

099, 101 Arthetica montaria arnica montana (ALC51 Herba Artetica montaria)

100, ? [T] Erba luccia rhamnus saxatilis? (ALC34 Herba Lucea et de nouem una — fish-like zoomorphic root)

100, ? Peonia paeonia peregrina (ALC96 Herba Pionia — in alio libro)

100, ? Musais ???

100, ? Ruscharia ruscus??

101, 103 [T] Rapalis raphanus raphanistrum (ALC72 Herba Rapillis — snake)

101, 103 Spatula fendula, gladiolus gladiolus

101, 103 Scama pigiar, foliris convolvulus scammonia?

101, 103 Gratiana gratiola officinalis (ALC94 Herba Gratilia sive Gratiana)

102, 84 104 [T] Filopendola filipendula ulmaria / meadowsweet (two kinds with two illustrations)

102, 84 104 [T] Been rosso centranthus ruber (io non vidi ne fiore ne seme…)

103, 85 105 [T] Sisamo sesame

103, 85 105 [T] Sillum agreste, aparienta ???

104, 86 106 Plion vel pilon euphorbia peplis??

104, 86 106 Pie leporino plantago lagopus

104, 86 106 [T] Acorus acorus calamus

104, 86 106 Gallitius, ghallitricus digitaria sanguinalis? -bodley ms. ashmole 1431-

105, 87 107 Judaicha, thetrait, pendalion solidago virgaurea? (judaicha = Erba giudaica)

105, 87 107 Concralis, concrealis clematis recta (ALC27 Herba Cancealis — in alio libro)

105, 87 107 Giralia arum italicum (ALC93 Herba Giralia)

105, 87 107 Pes leporinus, lagepos plantago lagopus (RZ: Tractatus De Herbis — Sloane 4016 48r, Lactuca Leporina)

106, 88 108 [T] Polmonella minore pulmonaria / lungwort??

106, 88 108 Rufina ??? (human faces in the leaves)

106, 88 108 [T] Altea, malba, malba vischio althea officinalis

106, 88 108 -unnamed poisonous plant- ??? (molto velenosa)

107, 89 109 [T] Caro carrot

107, 89 109 [T] Leursihama? ???

108, 110 [T] Chapalanes verbena officinalis (ALC75 Herba Capalarices)

108, 110 [T] Riacha tussilago farfara (ALC11 Herba Triacho)

109, 111 Angela angelica / wild celery

109, 111 [T] Cinoglios, lingua canis cynoglossum officinale

109, 111 [T] Nenufarro nymphaea / water lily (two illustrations)

110, 112 [T] Stellaria alchemilla vulgaris (ALC05 Herba Stellaria — two images)

110, 112 [T] Antolla aconitum anthora (ALC24 Herba Antollas — alio libro: see #78)

110, 112 Antolla lupanas ranunculus acer or aconitum lycoctonum?? (ALC25 Herba Antolla lupanas)

110, 112 [T] Antolla minor anthyllis vulneraria (ALC01 Herba Antolla minor)

111, 113 Gallitrico digitaria sanguinalis? -bodley ms. ashmole 1431- (in alio libro)

111, 113 Astula reggia asphodelus

111, 113 [T] Epatichira hepatica?

111, 113 Unghula caballina, rigon, farfarella tussilago farfara / coltsfoot (RZ: Tractatus De Herbis — Ungula Caballina Sloane 4016 101v)

111, 113 Sticados, barbaiovis anthyllis barba-jovis

112, 114 [T] Piantaggine dacqua alisma plantago-aquatica

113, 94 114 -no illustrations-

114, ? [T] Scrofularia scrophularia

114, ? [T] Fistolaria vel scrofularia scrophularia (alio modo in alio libro)

114, ? [T] Thora / tora ranunculus thora (ALC14 Toros — color annotation ‘rosso’/red under green paint)

115, 99 115 [T] Trodamaxe? polypodium vulgare? (ALC33 Herba Tedorixe)

115, 99 115 [T] Selgeas vel folegas achillea millefolium (ALC38 Herba Foleas)

116, 100 116 Morsum galline lamium amplexicaule / henbit

116, 100 116 Capello venero adiantum capillus-veneris

116, 100 116 [T] Pie colombina geranium columbinum

117, 118 Cipolla chanina leopoldia comosa / muscari comosum

117, 118 Custosorir, sponsa solis, elitropea field marigold / calendula arvensis? (human-head anthropomorphic root)

117, 118 [T] Galbino ferula gummosa / galbano?? (two variants: maschio, femina)

118, 118 Fragula strawberry

118, 118 Toracheo tussilago farfara? (ALC11 Herba Triacho?)

118, 118 Storaca? liquidambar orientalis — storax??

118, 118 [T] Morsum galline femmino lamium amplexicaule / henbit

119, 119 [T] Dordeghale? ???

119, 119 -unnamed plant- ???

120, 120 [T] Serpentilla asarum europaeum (ALC63 Herba Serpentina)

120, 120 [T] Negras genista tinctoria (ALC04 Herba Nigras)

121, 121 Tregibodera maggiore ???

121, 121 Tofanax vel tofanas sanicula europaea (ALC28 Herba Toffanas)

122, 61 122 [T] Titimallus euphorbia helioscopia (see Pseudo-Apuleius / Rinaldo da Villanova)

122, 61 122 Hiera hieracium?

122, 61 122 Hyppirum hippuris / mare’s tail

123, 123 [T] Spirodanardo / spigonardi nardostachys jatamansi? (ALC68 Herba Spigonarda)

123, 123 Trifolium trifolium pratense (ALC18 Herba Trifolio)

123, 123 Serpentina asarum europaeum (ALC63 Herba Serpentina — two illustrations: in alio libro)

124, 63 124 Pimpinella sanguis orbula sanguisorba minor (ALC31 ? Herba Sabastrella)

124, 63 124 Bustinia vel bustania anchusa officinalis (ALC73 Herba Bustania)

124, 63 124 Triacho tussilago farfara (ALC11 Herba Triacho)

125, 64 125 Leontipodum vel pes leonis leontopodium alpinum / edelweiss??

125, 64 125 Bulbo garab ???

125, 64 125 Jorobotam ???

126, 65 126 Mesettericho ???

126, 65 126 Personanizia? anise??

126, 65 126 Chotodriliom chondrilla?

126, 65 126 Purpurea digitalis purpurea (snake interlaced with the plant)

127, 127 [T] Solio equisetum arvense?? (ALC48 Herba Folio — with cleaver and sword))

127, 127 Bulbo cioseni? / tioseni? ???

127, 127 [T] Rapo turnip (Alberto Magno cited)

128, 128 Appolinaris hyoscyamus niger / henbane

128, 128 Chamomeleon chamomile

128, 128 Glicirieo glycyrrhiza glabra / liquorice (ALC36 ? Herba Requificia)

128, 128 Narcischus narcissus

129, 112 [T] Illiris helleborus niger (ALC41 Herba Illioris — two anthropomorphic roots — two variants ‘in alio libro’)

129, 112 [T] Foleni, folengui achillea millefolium (ALC38 Herba Foleas — three anthropomorphic roots — two variants ‘in alio libro’)

130, 130 [T] Alihe changij, solagro rosso physalis alkekengi

131, 131 Disacchos dipsacus

131, 131 Erlios? elios? ???

131, 131 Eliosmis?

131, 131 Erigos minor erigeron

132, 70 131 -two unpainted plants-

133, ? Circiana gentiana lutea (RZ: ALC53 Herba Zinziana)

133, ? [T] Filox, busilles buxus sempervirens (ALC12 Herba Bososilles — naked woman with child in bed)

134, 133 [T] Appio apium (snake)

135, 120 134 [T] Pomaria romana, pomeriola, dopion lithospermum? (dopion = diospiron — dog biting a naked person)

135, 120 134 [T] Lapidaria montana, somaria, asinariaca anchusa (asinarica = lactuca asinina)

136, 135 [T] Chapalices capparis spinosa (ALC57 Herba Capalias)

136, 135 [T] Schudario umbilicus rupestris (ALC78 Herba Scudaria)

137, 136 Spigo nardo nardostachys jatamansi? (ALC68 Herba Spigonarda)

137, 136 [T] Canaella berula erecta? (canaella = cannella)

138, 123 137 Turbius saldenello convolvolus ? / bindweed (saldanella = soldanella)

138, 123 137 Napallo aconitum napellus (small animal in the root, Tractatus de Herbis Sloane MS 4016 f63v)

139, 138 Ruberta geranium robertianum (parlasis = paralysis)

139, 138 Parlasis primula veris

140, 139 [T] Chocchulus, aplona cocculus?

140, 139 [T] Pina thalictrum flavum

141, ? [T] Tofonas sanicula europaea (ALC28 Herba Toffanas)

141, ? [T] Trogadara? mazeoro? lysimachia vulgaris (mazeoro = mazza d’oro)

142, ? [T] Frassinello, suggello sancta maria polygonatum officinale (ALC71 Herba Sigillo de Sancta Maria — second version ‘in alio libro’)

142, ? [T] Pinellina minore pimpinella?? (pinellina = pimpinella)

ViridisGreen

Botanical manuscripts and other old stuff. I am an amateur, not a palaeographer.

Marco Ponzi

Written by

ViridisGreen

Botanical manuscripts and other old stuff. I am an amateur, not a palaeographer.

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