Half-Earth National Report Cards summarise conservation efforts.

National-level efforts to protect land vertebrates tracked.

Camellia Williams
Oct 21, 2020 · 8 min read

The Half-Earth Project is a call to protect half the land and sea in order to manage sufficient habitat to safeguard the bulk of biodiversity. But which half? The most recent update to the Half-Earth Map introduces the National Report Cards which summarise various aspects of conservation efforts at the national level. They can be used to explore different national indicators measuring conservation needs and progress and understand the different challenges faced by each country.

Here, we will show you what to expect from the National Report Cards.

In-depth country focus.

The Species Protection Index.

The Average National Species Index has increased since 1980.

When measured at the national level, the SPI reflects the average amount of area-based conservation targets met across all endemic species within a given country in a given year, weighted by a country’s stewardship. The SPI ranges from 0–100, and is based on the amount and location of currently protected land, and the number and location of species found both inside and outside of these protected areas. An SPI of 100 reflects a country practicing good stewardship and promoting equitable conservation efforts within its borders.

The National SPI values shown here were derived using patterns of all known terrestrial vertebrate species, which were chosen because they represent the species groups with the most comprehensive coverage of distribution data. All data were provided and analyses were performed by Map Of Life. The Half-Earth Project is actively engaging in new research to expand coverage of other taxonomic groups, so that they can be included in future analyses and decision-making.

Colombia has 604 endemic land vertebrate species. These species are found nowhere else on Earth.

A suggestion of where additional protection is needed.

The brightly coloured map layer reveals which areas within each country would contribute more to the conservation of species habitat, while also marking the locations of current protection.

In order to achieve global terrestrial protection, an additional 52% of land in Kenya is in need of additional conservation action.

A beautiful visualisation of species composition.

The extension of the circular rings emphasises the high number of endemic species in Cuba.

A country with endemic species is solely responsible for the management of protected areas that assure the conservation of those species. Furthermore, the range of endemic species is often smaller than those found in multiple countries, placing additional responsibility on individual countries to protect almost 100% of a species’ range. Understanding the composition of species in terms of endemism is important for understanding the challenges a country may have in trying to achieve the maximum Species Protection Index.

Species Protection Scores.

The species stewardship element of the National Report Card scales up the concept of joint responsibility for a species by considering all of the land vertebrates in each country. Through this approach, it’s possible to see the number of countries that share the stewardship of a species. The Species Protection Score goes deeper into that concept by providing an assessment of the protection accomplished per species, per country.

The Species Protection Score (SPS) differs from the Species Protection Index (SPI) in that it reflects the level of protection an individual species receives within a given country. In general, each species requires a certain percentage of its global habitat to be safeguarded in order for the species to be considered adequately protected. This area-based percentage is referred to as a conservation target.

An SPS value indicates how close a country is to meeting a species’ conservation target, relative to the amount of species habitat it has stewardship over. A single species will therefore have a unique SPS for each country that overlaps with its global range. SPS values are presented as ranges (e.g., 75–100) to reflect some of the spatial uncertainty associated with species distributions.

Let’s look at the example of the Corsican finch (Carduelis corsicana), a small bird native to some of the Mediterranean islands of Italy and France. The majority of its habitat falls within Italian territory, and as such, in the context of equitable biodiversity conservation, it is reasonable to expect that Italy would be responsible for protecting more Corsican finch habitat than France. The Corsican finch has SPS ranges of 25–50 in Italy and 75–100 in France; this implies that France is protecting a greater percentage of Corsican finch habitat that it stewards relative to Italy, even though the raw amounts of protected habitat area within each country may be similar.

In Italy the Corsican Finch has a Species Protection Score of 25–50.
In comparison the score for the Corsican Finch in France is 75–100.

An overview of conservation challenges.

The scatter plots illustrate some of the similarities between countries, and the social challenges that need to be considered to ensure equitable global biodiversity conservation. By grouping countries by their similarities, this part of the National Report Cards could make it easier for countries to learn from one another and replicate each other’s successes.

Species stewardship is one of the filtering options that reveals which countries should work together to give species the best level of protection possible. Many species are found in numerous countries and the entire global population of each species needs protection wherever they are found.

Take the Sunda Pangolin (Manis javanica) as an example. The population of this Critically Endangered species is decreasing due to its popularity within the illegal wildlife trade. To prevent its extinction, the nine Asian countries in which this species is found should coordinate their conservation efforts.

The species stewardship element of the National Report Card scales up the concept of joint responsibility for a species by considering all of the land vertebrates in each country. Through this approach, it’s possible to see which countries share the most similar stewardship responsibilities.

Everyone must work together to protect biodiversity. The Half-Earth Project Map can be a valuable tool to help identify the connections that could make that possible.

Thailand is just one of nine countries in which the Sunda Pangolin is found and the Asian countries in this scatterplot share stewardship for many species.

An overview of country rankings.

The ranking table provides an overview of all countries.

A work in progress.

Solving planetary problems requires a planetary solution — and every part of society has to work together to make it happen. The Half-Earth Project brings together a range of data partners, research partners, and supporters in its efforts to protect half the land and sea. The National Report Cards are another contribution the Half-Earth Project is making to drive action on how to tackle the biodiversity crisis.

Where can I find the National Report Cards?

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