Any construction, from a small building, roads, even skyscrapers require high-quality raw materials in large quantities.
We cannot deny the importance of a strong foundation when it comes to the construction business. Good quality aggregate material is undoubtedly the fundamental building block ‘literally’ of any construction.
Construction aggregate or simply aggregate includes all types of construction material like sand, gravel, crushed stone, slag and geosynthetic aggregates that are largely used in the construction sector.
Aggregates are the base material for every construction. Whether it is roads or railways, the aggregate materials help in building a strong foundation. They have uniform properties that help in building a stable foundation. They bind the expensive cement and other materials together for long lasting results.
Aggregates are used to add strength to the composite material and because of their relatively high hydraulic conductivity value, they are also used for drainage applications.
If you are looking for the right company that offers supply and transport facility for your construction business, you need to learn about the types of aggregates available and there complete processing.
In this article, we will explain you everything you need to know about the aggregates, the processing, mining and their types.
Processing and Mining of the Aggregates:
Aggregates can comprise of a lot of composite materials. Mostly, they are mined materials that are broken down into different sizes for construction applications.
Wondering how these aggregates are formed?
There is a step by step process to create different types of aggregates. Let’s start:
Site Evaluation and Preparation for aggregate mining and processing:
For the mining of sand or gravel, site evaluation and preparation is necessary. A permit is issued when all the guidelines are followed by the company while site evaluation. These guidelines include — clearing trees, vegetation and storing topsoil from the location.
Mining and Processing to prepare the aggregates:
There are many geological characteristics that affect the mining of crushed stone, sand, and gravel. However, the most common methods are the open pit mining and quarrying. The sand and gravel deposits which are above the water-level are excavated with front-end loaders, tractor scrapers, and draglines.
For the deposits that are under the water-level workers use hydraulic and ladder dredges.
The process of quarrying requires drilling and blasting. After the suitable method is applied the crushed rock is transported to the process facilities.
There are many processing plants across the UK. Here, the quarried rock undergoes primary and secondary crushing and is sorted in size and is moved by the conveyors to bins or stockpiled.
The state transportation departments refine these aggregates into specific categories that offer supply to the preferred locations.
Here are how different types of aggregates are obtained and processed:
This is one of the most common aggregate found. Granite is considered as the best material for construction. It is formed by the slow crystallization of magma below Earth’s surface.
It is a solid frost resistant and is a high-grade concrete. It’s smooth and polished surface makes it a beautiful decorative tone used in homes and offices. Granite consists of feldspar, quartz and mica crystals and is available in grey, red, pink and many other shades.
Type 1 MOT-
Another category for the Granite sand ( sometimes limestone) is the Type 1 MOT that ranges from 0 to 40 mm in size. Also referred to the DOT Type 1 which is named after the Department of Transport specification for granular sub-base material.
Usually, granite is crushed down to 40mm to dust to create an aggregate that is easy to compact. The Type 1 MOT also has some load bearing qualities as compared to scalpings. For the construction of a firm base in car parking, footpaths, and driveways, one requires Type 1 MOT.
Size of Aggregates:
0–2 mm, 0–5mm Granite Sand:
For the construction of roads and to decorate the paving paths and playgrounds, the smallest granite sand is used. Also, these aggregate fractions are best to construct concrete structures and landscaping the garden areas of any home.
2–5 mm: This fraction of granite sand is used to construct the paving slabs and related applications.
3–5 mm: The 3 to 5 mm granite sand is used in the construction of roads and railroads. They are sometimes combined with the 5- 10 mm granite sand as they result in the best foundation.
5–10 mm: One of the most popularly used aggregate fraction ranges in the 5- 10 mm category. They are widely used in the construction of concrete structures, construction of roads, buildings, bridges, drainage foundations and septic drain field.
It is the most important binding material that holds the composite together. Also, it is quite necessary to add the 5- 10 mm aggregate in the concrete mixture as it makes the mixture stronger and the foundation stable.
5- 20 mm: For the road concrete mixes, the use of 5–20 mm granite sand is preferred. The reason to use this fraction aggregates is simple. They are adhesive and sticks the solid concrete together, making the surface smooth and even. They are best to add in the composite materials used to construct walls and floors.
10–20 mm: For laying out and filling of the concrete roads, the granite sand of the size 10–20 mm is perfect. They are also used for the sub base preparation of the road surface.
20–40 mm: Starting with the category of medium fraction aggregates, 20–40 mm are used in building the lower layer of the road surface (beneath the asphalt surface). Massive construction like of highways and railways and in heavy construction machinery builders require reinforced concrete that is generated with the help of 20–40 mm granite sand.
20–70 mm, 40 -70 mm : When builders work with a large quantity of concrete, this large fraction of aggregates can be used. They are preferred in the construction of industrial spaces and premises.
Other aggregates that are generated with sifting quarried rock or by crushing natural stone are the Gravel Aggregates. When compared to the granite aggregates, the gravel aggregates are inferior. However, due to their low radioactive nature, they are widely used in the construction sector.
Gravel aggregates are also used for the foundation of roads and in products made with reinforced concrete. As they are cheaper than the Granite gravels, they are best for small budget constructions.
The types of Gravel Aggregates available:
Gravel aggregates are of two types:
- Scabbled Stone: They can be natural or crushed.
- Gravel — Pebbles of the river and sea origin.
Fractions of gravel aggregates are as follows: 3–10 mm, 5–20 mm, 5–40 mm, 20–40 mm.
The product formed by crushing the limestone (composed of calcium carbonate) are the limestone aggregates. Commonly referred as lime, it is also used for the construction of roads and reinforced concrete objects.
The cost of the Limestone aggregates is comparatively less the granite sand.
Made from small equipment, secondary waste can be any type of waste found on the construction site. Aggregates that are the result of crushed construction materials like concrete, bricks and asphalt come under this category of secondary materials.
Unlike other aggregates like that limestone, granite, and gravel, secondary aggregates are listed as an inferior sand as it is not made up of any natural stone. For the same reason, these aggregates are of a comparatively less value with low strength and decreased frost resistance power.
However, these have huge applications in the construction industry that include:
- As a filler in road construction (on the lower layer of the road).
- For maintenance works in asphalted areas and sidewalks.
- For reinforcing weak soil (at the bottom of the construction pits).
Slag products are by-products specifically formed to remove nonessential elements from the production of iron and steel. Slag is also processed in the similar ways like other quarried aggregates. However, there is no blasting involved in processing aggregates from slag. The uncrushed slag is stockpiled prior to crushing and screening.
Slag aggregates are then obtained by passing the material through a conveyor belt and jaw crusher.
With the special treatment of the fire liquid slag melt, the slag aggregates are widely used in the construction sector as a binding component. Since they are made of molten slag, they work as great adhesives that stick the composite material with the surface.
With its various application in the construction business, they are cost effective as well. They cost up to 20–30% lower than the traditional aggregates.
Widely popular in the UK, the recycled aggregate is the result of processing inorganic material that was used in constructions. According to the European Waste Codes , only the material which is inert in nature qualifies to be recycled for reuse.
According to an estimate of Quarry Products Association in 2008, about 210 million tonnes of aggregate was produced in the UK, out of which around 67 million tonnes of it was a recycled product. A Quality Protocol is also monitored by the Waste and Resource Action Programme for a regulated production of the recycled aggregates.
The recycled aggregate should be used by the industries as they are generated with a quality assured system. Moreover, this aggregate is delivered with proper documentation that clearly states that the final product is assured to be high in quality and conforms to the relevant European standards.
Supply of all these types of aggregates is not a big deal when you are working with the right company. Not only that, one also needs to address on what kind of construction requires what kind of aggregates. For long lasting results, make sure that you choose a licensed company that offers quality aggregates at competitive rates.
Once you have decided on the type of material you’ll require, it is important to know the transportation of the aggregates to the desired location.
The preferred location and the aggregate material decides the mode of transportation. Also, there is a certain eligibility criterion that decides how the aggregate will be transferred from one place to another.
Here is the list of all the modes of transportation of aggregates:
Transporting aggregate by road is simple and economic. Whether it is a small pickup or transportation of gravel and sand, the tractor trailor rigs are widely popular to take of your work overload.
If you have hired a company that is in the surrounding areas of the construction site and there is no heavy aggregate to be loaded and unloaded, pickup truck transportation will be perfect.
Loading and unloading from a pickup truck is practically simpler than any other method. Trucks can reach on any road and one is saved from all the hassle involved.
What you need to keep in mind: When you are choosing a company for aggregate supply and transport, ask them about their services in details.
At Waste Disposal Hub, we prefer trucks to tarp as it helps to reduce the possibility of loose rock chips during the travel of delivery. Tarping the truck properly controls dust and the asphalt mix.
Haul trucks are used to carry a maximum of between 20 to 90 tons of stone in a single go (depending upon the size of the truck). They are of a size of two pickup trucks (or may be more). The Haul Trucks are not driven on the road and the wheels of the trucks are about 8 to 12 feet high. Their main application is to move the rock to the jaw crusher of the plant.
Aggregates are also transported by rail and this method is much more economical as compared to the truck transportation. Typically rail transportation is popular in the areas where the quality of the local stone is poor and is unsuitable for construction purposes.
For such areas, it is important to tie up with countries like India, Canada and Brazil for stone transportation through rails. Aggregates are loaded into a 100 — ton dump hopper cars, gondolas or are moved in a single car.
About 150 tonnes of aggregate transportation is possible by the water mode When a quarry has access to a navigable river, any type of aggregate in large quantities are moved by a hopper or flat deck barges.
The use of the right quality of aggregate for construction purposes cannot be overemphasized. If you are in the construction business, it is important for you to learn about the various kinds of aggregates for every construction. Get in touch with Waste Disposal Hub to supply transport the aggregate in your construction site.
At Waste Disposal Hub, you can find different types of aggregates for every construction. We supply and transport all types of aggregates to your construction site, so you don’t have to worry about it.
Get in touch with us today. Give us a call on 02071 128441 now!