Directory of Medical Physics

John Lo
John Lo
Jan 14, 2019 · 6 min read

1 Theory

1.1 What are some applications of physics in medicines?

2 Mechanics

2.1 Skeleton

2.1.1 Bones

2.1.1.1 What are the functions of bones?

2.1.1.2 What is the macrostructure of bone?

2.1.1.3 What are the types of bones?

2.1.1.4 Why does the calcium in bones have to be in the form of hydroxyapatite crystals?

2.1.1.5 What is the number of bones in our bodies?

2.1.1.6 What is the process of bone remodeling?

3 Thermodynamics

3.1 Heat

3.1.1 Thermography

3.1.1.1 What are the applications of thermography in medicine?

3.1.2 Hyperthermia

3.1.2.1 How is hyperthermia used to treat cancer?

3.1.2.2 What are the side effects of hyperthermia in cancer treatment?

3.1.3 Heat transfer to the body

3.1.3.1 What are the uses of radiant energy in medicine?

3.1.3.2 How is heat conduction applied onto the body?

3.2 Cold

3.2.1 What are the challenges of organ preservation?

3.2.2 What is cryosurgery?

3.2.3 What is the blood sand method?

3.3 Energy

3.3.1 Energy in the body

3.3.1.1 What is energy?

3.3.1.2 What are the three main uses of energy in the body?

3.3.1.3 How efficient are our muscles in getting work done?

3.3.2 Respiration

3.3.2.1 What is the Kreb’s cycle?

3.3.2.2 What is oxidative phosphorylation?

3.3.2.3 What is the net production of ATP in biological cycles?

3.3.2.4 How is ATP consumed in the body?

3.3.3 Metabolism

3.3.3.1 What are the contributions to basal metabolism?

3.3.3.2 What factors can affect your metabolic rate?

3.3.3.3 What are the metabolic rates during common activities?

3.3.3.4 How is the metabolic rate measured during exercise?

3.4 Pressure

3.4.1 What are the types of pressure within the body?

3.4.2 What is micturition reflex?

3.5 Breathing

3.5.1 Rate

3.5.1.1 What is the breathing rate of humans?

3.5.2 Breathing system

3.5.2.1 What is the function of a breathing system?

3.5.2.2 What is the process involved in the human respiratory system?

3.5.2.3 What is the anatomy of the respiratory tract?

3.5.3 Lungs

3.5.3.1 What are the types of pressure inside the lungs?

3.5.3.2 What are the properties of the lung?

3.5.3.3 What is the importance of lung surfactants?

3.5.4 Gas

3.5.4.1 Air composition

3.5.4.1.1 Why is the alveolar air composition different from the atmospheric air composition?

3.5.4.1.2 What affects the rate of gas diffusion through the respiratory membrane?

3.5.4.1.3 What is the acid base balance in our body?

3.5.4.2 Oxygen

3.5.4.2.1 What is hyperbaric oxygen therapy good for?

3.5.4.2.2 What is myoglobin? How does it help in oxygen transport?

3.5.4.2.3 How does hemoglobin transport oxygen in the blood?

3.5.4.2.4 What’s the oxygen dissociation curve?

3.5.4.3 Carbon dioxide

3.5.4.3.1 What are the effects of carbon dioxide on breathing?

3.5.5 Respiratory center

3.5.5.1 What is the brain stem respiratory center?

3.5.5.2 What is pons in the respiratory center?

4 Acoustics

4.1 Applications of sound

4.1.1 Stethoscopes

4.1.1.1 What are the advantages and disadvantages of an electronic stethoscope?

4.1.1.2 What are the mechanisms of acoustic stethoscopes?

4.1.2 Ultrasound

4.1.2.1 Production

4.1.2.1.1 How is the piezoelectric effect used in the production of ultrasound?

4.1.2.2 Ultrasound scanning

4.1.2.2.1 Types

4.1.2.2.1.1 What are the types of ultrasonic scanning?

4.1.2.2.2 Resolution

4.1.2.2.2.1 What determines the resolution of an ultrasound imaging system?

4.1.2.2.3 Microbubble contrast agents

4.1.2.2.3.1 What are the types of microbubble contrast agents in ultrasound scan?

4.1.2.2.3.2 What are the innovations of microbubble contrast agents in an ultrasonic scanning?

4.1.2.2.3.3 What are the properties of polyethylene glycol that make it a good microbubble contrast agent in an ultrasound scan?

4.1.2.2.4 Application

4.1.2.2.4.1 What are the applications of ultrasonic scanning?

4.1.2.2 Ultrasound therapy

4.1.2.2.1 What are some of the physiological effects of ultrasound?

4.1.2.2.2 What are the therapeutic effects of ultrasounds?

4.1.2.2.3 What are the medical applications of an ultrasound?

4.1.3 Other techniques

4.1.3.1 What does the medical term “percussion” mean?

4.1.3.2 What is the procedure of using the sphygmomanometer?

4.1.3.3 What is amniocentesis?

4.1.3.4 What is a nuchal translucency scan?

4.3 Sound of the body

4.3.1 Hearing

4.3.1.1 Anatomy of the ear

4.3.1.1.1 Parts

4.3.1.1.1.1 What are the ear’s major parts?

4.3.1.1.2 Outer ear

4.3.1.1.2.1 What is the function of the eardrum?

4.3.1.1.3 Middle ear

4.3.1.1.3.1 How does the middle ear function in a human ear?

4.3.1.1.3.2 What are the earbones?

4.3.1.1.4 Inner ear

4.3.1.1.4.1 What is the function and exact location of the organ of a Corti?

4.3.1.1.4.2 What is the cochlea?

4.3.1.1.4.3 What are the outer hair cells?

4.3.1.2 Central auditory system

4.3.1.2.1 Components

4.3.1.2.1.1 What are the components of the central auditory system?

4.3.1.2.2 Auditory processing disorder

4.3.1.2.2.1 What is auditory processing disorder?

4.3.1.2.2.2 How can I cure my auditory processing disorder?

4.3.2 Speech

4.3.2.1 Speech production

4.3.2.1.1 What are the components of speech production?

4.3.2.1.2 What are the stages of speech production?

4.3.2.1.3 What are the processes of speech production?

4.3.2.2 Phonation

4.3.2.2.1 What is phonation in speech production?

4.3.2.2.2 What are the sequential stages of glottal vibration?

4.3.2.2.3 What is the frequency of phonation?

4.3.2.2.4 What is the energy involved in phonation?

4.3.2.2.5 What affects phonation?

4.3.2.2.6 What are the vocal folds?

5 Electromagnetism

5.1 The heart

5.1.1 Anatomy of the heart

5.1.1.1 What is the anatomy of the heart?

5.1.1.2 What is the tough muscular wall of the heart?

5.1.2 Electrical properties of the heart

5.1.2.1 What is the electric field of the heart?

5.1.2.2 What is the cardiac conduction system?

5.1.2.3 What is automaticity of heart?

5.1.2.4 How is action potential generated in a cardiac muscle?

5.2 Brain

5.2.1 Anatomy of the brain

5.2.1.1 Structure

5.2.1.1.1 What’s the brain anatomy?

5.2.1.2 Neurons

5.2.1.2.1 What are the 3 types of neurons in the nervous system?

5.2.1.2.2 What is the structural classification of neurons?

5.2.1.2.3 How are neurons packaged together?

5.2.2 Electrical properties of the brain

5.2.2.1 Neurons

5.2.2.1.1 Ions

5.2.2.1.1.1 Why is myelination of neurons important?

5.2.2.1.1.2 What is the importance of Na-K pump?

5.2.2.1.1.3 What is the ionic concentration of neurons?

5.2.2.1.2 Electrical potentials

5.2.2.1.2.1 Resting membrane potential

5.2.2.1.2.1.1 What is the resting membrane potential of a neuron?

5.2.2.1.2.2 Action potential

5.2.2.1.2.2.1 What is action potential in a neuron?

5.2.2.1.2.2.2 What is the propagation of action potential?

5.2.2.1.3 Synaptic relationship

5.2.2.1.3.1 What is the synaptic relationship between neurons?

5.2.2.2 Electroencephalogram

5.2.2.2.1 Where do electrical signals pass and act in the brain?

5.2.2.2.2 What is the montage of electroencephalogram?

5.2.2.2.3 What are the types of signals from an electroencephalogram?

5.2.2.3 Disorder

5.2.2.3.1 What is epilepsy?

6 Optics

6.1 Application of light

6.1.1 Fluorescence

6.1.1.1 What are the types of photon excitation?

6.1.1.2 What are the pros and cons of using fluorescent proteins?

6.1.2 Laser

6.1.2.1 Therapy

6.1.2.1.1 What is laser and it’s applications?

6.1.2.1.2 What are the contraindications of laser therapy?

6.1.2.2 Safety

6.1.2.2.1 What kind of damage would a laser gun do to the human body?

6.1.2.2.2 What are the cautions for laser operations?

6.1.2.3 Classification

6.1.2.3.1 How are the various types of laser classified?

6.1.3 Fiber optics

6.1.3.1 Optical fiber

6.1.3.1.1 What is optical fiber made of?

6.1.3.2 Endoscope

6.1.3.2.1 How are flexible endoscopes applied?

6.1.4 UV light

6.1.4.1 Dangers

6.1.4.1.1 What happens to skin as it is exposed to sunlight for long periods of time?

6.1.4.1.2 Why should prolonged or excessive exposure to direct and or artificial sunlight be avoided?

6.1.4.2 Protection

6.1.4.2.1 Sunscreen

6.1.4.2.1.1 What are the optical properties of sunscreen?

6.2 Vision

6.2.1 Components

6.2.1.1 What are the components of vision?

6.2.2 Eye

6.2.2.1 Image formation

6.2.2.1.1 How is an image formed in the eye?

6.2.2.1.2 How is light refracted in the eye?

6.2.2.1.3 What are the properties of human eye for image formation?

6.2.2.1.4 What is the reduced eye model?

6.2.2.1.5 What is the limitation of geometrical optics?

6.2.2.1.6 What is the significance of the movement of an image in human vision?

6.2.2.2 Focusing

6.2.2.2.1 What does the eye do to change its focus?

6.2.2.2.2 What is the focusing power of the eye?

6.2.2.2.3 What affects the focusing power of the eye?

6.2.2.2.4 What are the requirements of light for the iris in the human eye?

6.2.2.2.5 How do I understand Circle of confusion (COC)?

6.2.2.2.6 How is the depth of field affected by aperture?

6.2.2.3 Signal processing

6.2.2.3.1 What is retina?

6.2.2.3.2 How are photoreceptor cells distributed in the human eye?

6.2.2.3.3 What are the two different types of photoreceptors?

6.2.2.3.4 How are signals processed in the human eye?

6.2.2.3.5 What is the sensitivity of the eye?

6.2.2.4 Limitations of detection

6.2.2.4.1 Types

6.2.2.4.1.1 What are the detection limits of the eye?

6.2.2.4.2 Resolution

6.2.2.4.2.1 What is Rayleigh criterion?

6.2.2.4.2.2 What are the factors affecting the resolution of the eye?

6.2.2.5 Disorder

6.2.2.5.1 What are the common eyes defects? What is the cure for these defects?

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