ONO White Paper: Chapter 7 ONO DAC
“A small country has fewer people.
Though there are machines that can work ten to a hundred times faster than man, they are not needed.
The people take death seriously and do not travel far.
Though they have boats and carriages, no one uses them.
Though they have armor and weapons, no one displays them.
Men return to the knotting of rope in place of writing.
Their food is plain and good, their clothes fine but simple, their homes secure;
They are happy in their ways.
Though they live within sight of their neighbors,
And crowing cocks and barking dogs are heard across the way,
Yet they leave each other in peace while they grow old and die.”
- Chapter 80 Tao Te Ching, translation by Gia-Fu Feng (馮家福 Feng Jia-fu, 1919–1985) and Jane English (1942–)
Vintage Books, 1989 https://terebess.hu/english/tao/gia.html#Kap80
The ONO DAC (Decentralized Autonomous Corporation) is a distributed, autonomous organization running continuously within the ONO social network. The DAC operation mechanism divides operational tasks and distributes them publicly, so that ONO operations can be implemented transparently and without management. Participants do not need to be employees to be part of the ONO DAC.
After using the Partner system for a period of time, we discovered the importance of the organization’s governance mechanism. A truly decentralized social network requires that the founding team as well as the technology itself be decentralized and promoted in the community. Management and governance should be decentralized as well.
Centralization will result in corruption and abuse of people’s rights in the short term. In the long term, a centralized organization will rely on top-down management which will result in a narrower and narrower design. Conversely, decentralized organizations will bring the consensus of human thinking and the formation of natural co-governance which will lead to the development and prosperity of its ecosystem.
As Lao Tzu said in the Tao Te Ching,
“Yet they leave each other in peace while they grow old and die.”
The “small country, few people” chapter of the Tao Te Ching consists in acknowledging the significance of differentiation of roles and communities in society, but opposes the imposition of centralized, wide-scale values. The intention is that in addition to acknowledging top-down wisdom, it also recognizes contextual rights that are created by communities from the bottom up. Federalism is more ideal for equality, collectivism, consensus, and autonomy.
“Letting communities self-organize combined with some outside governance“ contains the fundamental meaning of decentralization. When larger and rigidly controlled structures are involved in public governance and which are brought into being by the consolidation of power, if they don’t know how to let communities self-organize, the abuse of rights is extremely likely.
Freedom, equality, social co-governance and diversity are the values of the ONO social network. ONO’s vision is similar to that of Lao Tzu’s approach to public governance and coincides with the concept of the DAC. The ONO DAC has now been born.
7.1 What is a DAC?
The DAC organization has the following characteristics: 1) Management Discretization 2) Autonomous voting mechanism
3) Decision-making process is 100% transparent, decision-making is reversible
4) There is no administrative overlord; any distributed autonomous institution must have a mechanism to expel the founder, and it should not be under the exclusive control of any one individual. Therefore, administrator roles can automatically change hands to maintain vitality. For example, the governance mechanism of Wikipedia 2.6 enabled the expulsion of its founder from the Wiki Foundation.
5) Come and go freely. Join at any time and leave voluntarily at any time.
6) The sub-organization has the same characteristics as the main-level organization. Therefore, no subordinate relationship exists between the many layers within the organization, but they should be mutually cooperative.
7) The organizations are symbiotic and form a mesh-like interconnected web. Each point in the web forms in a non-linear fashion and is able to influence other points without needing to go through a strict hierarchy.
7.2 ONO DAC Incentives
Historical data shows that traditional social media spends no less than 20% of its revenue each year on operational expansion, as can be seen from past case studies.
Obviously, investment in operational promotion can increase the number of new users more quickly, increase the activity of the social ecosystem, and promote the development of it. This activity has long-term benefits for the ONO social network.
ONO DAC Operational Rewards Pool
Therefore, an amount of 2% of ONOTs is issued for smart contracts every day, that is, a total of 273,973 ONOTs will flow into the ONO DAC operational rewards pool and be dedicated to ONO DAC operations. (For example, the cost of community partners, volunteers will be paid through ONO DAC operating expenses).
7.3 Early ONO DAC Operational Reward Pool Management
Since the ONO DAC operation has not yet been formed, the ONO DAC operation pool is temporarily managed by the NOME TECH PTY, the main body of the founding team. It is jointly planned and used by the Super Partners, the founding team and all ONO DAC organizations.
All decision-making processes, operating conditions, operating costs, and final proposal results will be published. The flow of expenses will also be recorded and tracked on the blockchain.
In order to prevent collective corruption, users have the right to monitor and influence the use of ONO DAC operating expenses through a Referendum.
7.4 Different Organizations of ONO DACs
ONO DAC’s Community Partners
Community Partners are a class of DAC organizations that are part of ONO DAC’s operations.
As mentioned above, ONO DAC operation upholds the principles of decentralization, creating, developing, and governing the community and promoting social networking.
The Community Partners are not full-time or part-time ONO employees, but participate in the prosperous development of ONO in an autonomous, co-governing DAC style. In theory, the number of Community Partners is ever-changing, autonomous and infinitely variable.
Community Partners are the most well-respected ONO members, and they take initiatives to assume the responsibility of establishing the ONO community. In addition, they are counselors for the ONO founding team’s operational needs.
Based on the values of ONO, and in order to grow the ONO community and social network as their organizational goal, Community Partners need to use their ability to build relationships with their group members and keep the community active, creating an autonomous, prosperous and active ONO. They need to have ongoing discussions about the environment within their communities.
Although the founding team is not obligated to participate in the governance of the ONO DAC, it will do its best to support the Community Partners in fulfilling their organizational goals with a friendly attitude and collaborative spirit. For example, resources such as materials, founding team reward sharing, online media traffic, ONO DAC operating rewards pool funding, etc., are provided to assist them in forming an autonomous and prosperous community.
ONO DAC Community Volunteers
Community Volunteers are a type of DAC organization that is part of ONO DAC operations.
As mentioned above, the ONO DAC operation upholds the principle of decentralization, creating, developing, and governing the community and promoting social networking.
The Community Volunteers are not full-time or part-time ONO employees. Instead, they participate in the prosperous development of ONO by means of autonomous and coordinated DAC activities. In theory, the number of volunteers in the community is ever-changing, autonomous and infinitely variable.
The role of Community Volunteers is based on ONO’s core philosophy and values. They are willing to guard the main system of returning value to content creators, answer new users’ questions in participating in the ONO process, help more people understand ONO, and better understand how ONO can meet their respective needs.
Although the founding team is not obligated to participate in the governance of the ONO DAC, it will do its best to support the Community Volunteers in fulfilling their organizational goals with a friendly attitude and collaborative spirit. For example, resources such as materials, founding team reward sharing, online media traffic, and ONO DAC operations reward pool funding are provided to assist them in the dissemination of ONO values.
ONO DAC Keynote Partners
The Keynote Partner is the abbreviation of the founding partner of the early ONO social network construction. It is the first 300,000 people who joined the ONO social network in addition to the ONO developer team.
The 300,000 Keynote Partners will be the first to participate in the construction of content mechanisms, creative support, active contributions, and popularization of users who might potentially like ONO before the ONO social network is fully opened to the general public.
The ONO social network is grateful to the Keynote Partners for their early trust, commitment and support. In return, ONO will award the Keynote Partners a series of benefits within the social network, including but not limited to ONOT.
The 300,000 Keynote Partners will be joining in three stages. They are: 50,000 in the first phase; 100,000 in the second phase; and 150,000 in the third phase. A total of 300 million ONOTs will be used for rewarding Keynote Partner participation.
ONO DAC’s Co-Contributing Partners
The Co-Contributing Partner is an abbreviation for the joint Construction Partner of the social network and is a person who, in addition to the ONO developer team, provides early financial support, development and assistance to the ONO social network. The ONO social network expresses its gratitude to the Partners for their early trust, commitment and support. In return, ONO will award the Co-Contributing Partners a range of things in the social network, including but not limited to ONOT.
According to the degree of contribution, Co-Contributing Partners are divided into several levels. Co-Contributing partners will enjoy a series of exclusive rights within the social network, including exclusive ONOT mission awards, as a marker of the value created by the Co-Contributors. The Co-Contributing Partners have the right to retract their support for the ONO social network at any time. When their support is retracted, all the Partners’ special rights, including the rewarded ONOT, will be returned.
Unlimited Possibilities ONO DAC
As mentioned above, the ONO DAC will continue to grow with the development of the ONO social network and ONOT, and it will also produce unpredictable changes. In the future, there may be more secondary DAC organizations belonging to the ONO DAC.
Let us reiterate that ONO’s values will always be the same.
7.5 Special ONO DAC: Super Partner
Super Partners are the loyal guardians of the values of the ONO social network and are the managers of the social networking content which needs to be collapsed. Not only that, the Super Partners are obliged to pass on the values of ONO to others, plus develop and assist more Community Partners and Volunteers.
The mission of the Super Partners is to maintain the security, freedom and decentralization of the ONO social network, properly manage harmful content, prevent abusive behavior from spreading, and transmit the values of ONO. This will be the prerequisite for the development of the ONO social network.
The Super Partners should be: loyal, kind, self-controlled, humble, possess long-term vision and embody firm beliefs, and willing to serve all of humanity.
Punishment and Consequences
In the ONO social network, the content ecosystem is an important component. The importance of optimizing content quality and reducing the influence of harmful content is obvious. We can use the reputation mechanism to promote the creation of high quality content with “invisible hands” to curb the proliferation of low-quality content; individual case disputes can be resolved through Referendums — but there is still a problem of inefficiency in judging the content of the Common Program.
When there is content that obviously does not conform to the ONO Social Network Common Program and needs to be immediately collapsed, everyone needs the Super Partner to complete this work in an extremely short period of time to prevent the social network from being contaminated.
ONO provides Super Partners with an efficient and collaborative work method. Super Partners can perform actions against harmful content through web-based management background/mobile management back-end tools.
Communication and Incentive
Undoubtedly, the role of the Super Partner will assume a critically important responsibility and will also receive a large amount of ONOT incentives. However, it is worth mentioning that the Super Partners need to reasonably allocate the obtained ONOT according to the operational requirements.
In order to ensure the safety of users in the ONO social network and to sustainably develop the Super Partnership system, the Super Partners’ real-life information and operations will be required to be publicized. Any one user may impeach a Super Partner if they do not work or do evil.
Definition of Super Partner
Super Partners have the following characteristics:
1) The total number of Super Partners is no more than 51 persons, who are generated through the public election system;
2) The Super Partner does not need to belong to any enterprise or entity, only to a decentralized DAC organization;
3) Super Partners are a special type of DAC organization. Although they are ONO DACs, their incentives are not derived from the ONO DAC operation rewards pool;
4) The Super Partner is similar to an administrator of the ONO social network; the difference between this management mechanism and the traditional centralized platform/existing decentralized platform (2.7) is that the Super Partner’s authority is affected by the Common Program. Clearly, the users’ power over the Super Partner can be effectively controlled, i.e., through complaints, impeachment, veto, and general elections. And, most importantly, the Super Partners and all users are in a community of interests rather than in antagonistic relationships.
5) Super Partners also have certain rights: content management/third-party application management/participation in ONO operations, markets, technology iterations, etc.
Super Partner Roundtable Proposal
In the Referendum, we know that virtually every user can participate in promoting the prosperity of ONO’s ecosystem through a Referendum vote. However, in actual experiments, we found that ONO’s democratic mechanism has a non-negligible efficiency problem, which will lead to a long process from decision-making to action and will hurt the user experience. A Super Partner Roundtable Proposal that balances democracy and efficiency came into being.
Representatives of Public Opinion
Without prejudice to the Common Program and public interest, the Super Partners have the ability to bypass the Referendum within their jurisdiction and to vote through the Super Partner Roundtable. All Super Partners’ proposals and voting results will be published on the ONO social network and on the official website. The founding team will never participate in this proposal form and voting.
Founding Team’s Early One-vote Veto
The founding team retains a veto vote in the selection of the first generation Super Partners. This is done to prevent the collective corruption of the Super Partners, and there may be no awareness of impeachment rights in the early users of the ONO social network.
User Rights Are Most Important Aspect
Users can reject a proposal passed by any Super Partner through a Referendum.
It needs to be reiterated that the power of the Super Partner is always effectively controlled by the public. Users can vote for the Super Partners that he or she wishes to elect from previous elections, complain about a disgruntled Super Partner, impeach him/her, and reject any of the Super Partners’ proposals.
The First Generation of Super Partners: Trial Period
The first batch of Super Partners emerged in April 2018. At this time, the ONO social network had not yet been launched and cannot be voted in by the Referendum. But as the White Paper section says, “The ONO social network requires Super Partners.”
Early trust and support are important components for a social network. Thanks to the first batch of ONO supporters, the first generation of Super Partners partnered with communities that have contributed to the early construction of ONO. People and volunteers submitted applications. Community Partners and Volunteers can apply to become the first generation of Super Partners. This position can be voluntarily retracted but it is not transferable to others.
At this stage, there will be 51 Super Partners who embody the values of ONO and are willing to contribute to the early construction of the ONO social network. In order to ensure that the process is truly open and transparent, ONO will publish this data and selection process.
In addition to the Community Partners and Volunteers, the Super Partners also set up an alternative list. Alternative Super Partners are also selected by the community Partners/Volunteers. When the Super Partners in the trial phase are appointed or removed, the alternative Super Partners will fill up the vacancies.
Due to the special nature of the first generation of Super Partners, the Super Partners exist in the trial phase before the first Super Partner election. During this trial phase, any Super Partners who have not fulfilled their duties will be removed.
Appointment and Removal Mechanism
To ensure the safety of users in the social network and for the sustainable development of the Super Partnership system, the Super Partners’ real-life information and operations will be required to be published. Any one user may impeach a Super Partner if they do not work or do evil.
According to the open and free user ONO ecosystem, in order to ensure that the work of the Super Partners is open, transparent, and
verifiable, the daily work of the Super Partners will be published, such as the number of teams and workers, amount of work completed, awarding bonuses, etc.
All ONO users will be able to clearly understand the working ability and output of each Super Partner based on their work documentation in order to determine which Super Partners will get their vote during the next general election.
At the same time, ONO will regularly organize weekly and monthly meetings of the Super Partners. Each Super Partner will report on their work, including but not limited to the team-building situation, the problems encountered and the necessary collaboration. The meeting will be publicly published. The purpose of the meeting is to create joint strategies for the ONO team and the Super Partners to build and improve the Super Partner system.
ONO will take out a daily fixed amount of ONOTs from the eco-incentive pool to reward the first generation Super Partners for their efforts.
Formal Super Partner Mechanism
Data shows us that traditional social media companies recruit more than 10,000 employees each year as content review specialists.
We learned in the Super Partners section that it is necessary to collapse inferior content. Reducing inferior content can improve the quality of user content and at the same time increase the social activity in the network. This also has long-term benefits for ONO’s entire ecosystem.
From this we can see that the Super Partners will assume enormous operational pressures and will also be responsible for the development of ONO’s social ecosystem. At the same time, with regard to the continuous development of ONO in the future, multi-lingual global Super Partners will likely participate not only in this form but perhaps they will create a secondary DAC organization to establish a cross-cultural effort.
ONO Super Partner Rewards Pool
A portion of 2% ONOTs, i.e., a total of 273,973 ONOTs, will be issued via smart contracts on a daily basis, which will flow into the ONO Super Partner rewards pool and will be dedicated to supporting the development of the Super Partner ecosystem.
Super Partners are part of the ONO DAC organization, but because they have a fixed total number and are elected, they have considerable influence. ONO believes that greater responsibility and a higher degree of involvement in the decentralized, self-organized ONO system will mean that Super Partners will have to act with complete transparency.
Therefore, the work of the Super Partners will be quantified and the distribution method of ONOTs will be decided accordingly. This distribution model should be based on the consensus of the Super Partner ONO DAC.
Its allocation will go through a trial period until it reaches the consensus of the citizens. We believe that short-term chaos and confusion will be unavoidable just like the experience of anarchism, but it is undeniable that this practical process is necessary.
All decision-making processes, operating conditions, costs, and proposal results will be published. The record of expenses will also be recorded and tracked on the blockchain. In order to prevent collective corruption, users have the right to monitor and influence the distribution and use of the ONO Super Partner rewards pool through a Referendum.
ONO has detailed procedures for the Super Partner election.
ONO is based on freedom, decentralized user intent, a statement of the general election, because each time point, and ended the next election, candidates may have the intention to apply for public information in line with the rules of the election in any channel, and Publish campaign statements and declarations through any channel;
In order to create a free and decentralized user-directed platform, ONO will issue a statement about the general election, reasons, time schedule, next-term membership and election methods. Interested parties may openly submit application materials that meet the election rules in any channel. The candidates may publish campaign statements and declarations through any channel.
ONO will regularly collect qualified candidates and publish their candidacy materials during a certain period of time before the results of the voting is announced. During this period, a user can initiate a declaration of objection to any candidate through a Referendum. According to the result of the Referendum, it will determine whether or not he/she will continue to be a candidate.
The following describes one’s eligibility for election.
When the objection period ends, all new candidate channels will be frozen and everyone can vote for their chosen candidates who have been published.
When the Referendum period is over, ONO will announce the list of Super Partners according to the voting results and award the title of Super Partner to the winners. From the date of election, all new Super Partners will begin to implement the Super Partners’ work and mission.
Super Partners and SP candidates may withdraw at any time. After the withdrawal, they will be replaced by alternatives via the alternative Super Partner mechanism. The monthly awards will be paid on a daily basis. If they apply for withdrawal during the election period, they will lose their current election eligibility.
Based on the results of the vote Referendum, ONO will compile a list of Super Partner candidates who did not receive enough votes, and arrange them according to the number of votes each received. When there are situations like withdrawal, appointment, and impeachment in the Super Partner roster, which would result in fewer than 51, the alternate Super Partners must fill the vacancies, according to the number of votes they received.
Appointment and Removal Mechanism
In order to prevent the Super Partners from committing evil and in order to protect the safety, freedom, and decentralization of all individuals in the ONO social network, we set up a mechanism for the appointment and removal of Super Partners:
1. With regard to solving controversies surrounding managing abusive content and the Referendum, here is clarification: If a Super Partner does not collapse user content based on the “Collapsing Content Rules,” the Super Partner will soon be voted on.
2. If the Super Partner loses more than 75% of the votes and if this behavior occurs more than 3 times in the relevant appeal for that day, he/she will be restricted from his/her content management rights for that day. If this penalty is given more than 3 times, the Super Partner is deemed to be as acting badly and will be removed from the list of Super Partners.
In this way, it is ensured that the job of collapsing harmful content is carried out by those who are efficient and active.
Formal Super Partner Incentives
The main work of the early Super Partners is the management of collapsing content. ONO will allocate 2% of the total amount of ONOTs issued each day for rewarding the Super Partner with ONOTs as a way of expressing gratitude for their important work.
Rules for Collapsing Content
The collapsing content rule is to ensure that the Super Partners can work better and jointly formulate strategies and agree with each other. As with the ONO Social Network Common Program, it will be continuously optimized and iterated.
1. Content that does not conform to the ONO Social Network’s Common Program should be collapsed.
2. In order to protect the diversity of content, the content must not be collapsed according to personal wishes or preferences.
3. If content is found to be contentious, Super Partners are responsible for initiating a Referendum to solve individual case disputes.
Every user has the right to appeal their collapsed content.
Read the ONO White Paper:
ONO White Paper CH. 2: ONO DApp
ONO White Paper CH. 3: Technical
ONO White Paper CH. 4: Economic System
ONO White Paper CH. 5: Advertising System
ONO White Paper CH. 6: Abuse Management
ONO White Paper CH. 7: ONO DAC
ONO White Paper CH. 8: Common Program
ONO White Paper CH. 9: Roadmap
ONO White Paper CH. 10: Challenges & Strategies
ONO White Paper CH. 11: ONO Core Team
ONO White Paper CH. 12: Investors
ONO White Paper CH. 13: Nome Foundation
ONO White Paper CH. 14: Disclaimer